[According to a reference I found the author of this was an ex-Christian Pastor. Jan]
The Problem of Predisposition (Why you must approach your faith of choice with objectivity and skepticism and not confirmation bias)
I. The theist defines a god. He defines his nature, his character, his actions and concerns.
II. The theist rejects thousands of other definitions of god without considering most of them.
A. Pagan gods such as Abellio the Celtic tree god, or Malakbel the the Arabian vegetation god.
B. Modern gods (Islam, Hinduism, Taoism, Judaism)
III. There are billions of people who reject the theist’s particular definition of god, who have as little regard for the theists definition of god as he does for their definition of god(s).
IV. The theist’s choices in defining god are very likely determined by culture, accident of birth, and childhood indoctrination.
A. This is evidenced by localized religions, such as salt lake city’s Mormons, the bible belt’s protestant Christians, India’s polytheist Hindu’s, Ireland’s Catholics etc.
B. Children are not religious, they are only the children of religious people. They do not have the mental faculty, life experience, or knowledge to contrast with what they are being told is true of the world. Consider as an example the children in the Westboro Baptist Church who stand with signs at protests saying that “God Hates Fags” and “Thank God for Dead Soldiers.” Do those children arrive to those conclusions based on considerate thought or life experience?
V. The Outsider Test for Faith (John Loftus) – What if you had been born in Saudi Arabia as a Muslim and were given the opportunity to examine the Christian faith as a born and raised Muslim? If your definition of god is correct, shouldn’t it stand the test of scrutiny? “Test your beliefs as if you were an outsider to the faith you are evaluating” (Loftus).
A. If you acknowledge you probably would have remained a Muslim in these circumstances – there is a high probability your belief is simply an accident of birth and culture, or at the very least not the result of careful, objective reasoning.
B. If you believe the "evidence" would have convinced you to convert to Christianity, that means one of two things:
1. You believe you have solid, objective and falsifiable evidence that can be examined through the eyes of a Muslim and still be self-evident. Why then don’t more Muslim’s convert or consider the Christian religion as a serious alternative to Islam? Where is this evidence and why doesn’t it seem to convince people who aren’t born into Christianity by accident of birth? What is it that personally convinces you that a god exists? If this were discredited, would you still believe it? If so your belief is not based on reason or evidence.
2. You are delusional with faith, which is not so much a virtue as willingness to believe something that there is no evidence for whatsoever.
C. If you had been born into isolation and not exposed to or even heard of religion for the first thirty years of your life, and then were suddenly exposed to all of the religions that have ever existed all at once, how would you come to the conclusion that one you believe in now is true and all of the others are false? Imagine comparing the Samoan creation story with the Biblical creation story if you had never been exposed to either? What makes one more plausible than the other?
The Problem of Deism (Why there is no actual evidence for the existence of ANY god)
I. Belief and Knowledge. (Theories, Evidence, and falsifiability)
A. Science puts forth theories about how the natural world operates, we can then make predictions of what we would expect to find if these theories are true. These predictions can then can be observed, tested and falsified depending on whether our model fits what we observe in nature or not. Theories explain and predict observable facts. Consider atomic theory, gravitational theory, and evolutionary theory. Predictions about how chemicals will interact with each other, for example, is based off of atomic theory and electron behavior. While we have never seen an electron, our theory makes some predictions about how these particles will behave and interact if they do exist, and we observe that these behaviors are exactly what we see in nature. This model works so well that we can use it reliably and consistently to produce useful results such as modern medicine and household cleaners. If we saw results in nature other than what our model predicts, then we would know something is wrong with our theory. Science therefore follows the evidence and attempts to disprove it’s own theories as a way of supporting them. So a scientific theory is not just a guess or belief, it is a testable model that best explains the nature of phenomenon.
B. Religion is a non-falsifiable hypothesis that puts forth no useful predictions about how the nature of things should be if the theory is true, and so it cannot be tested or falsified. It is a belief system, not a knowledge system. It does not explain or predict observed facts. Religions looks at areas where we do not have answers and believes things about those subjects. It does not know things, it believes thing. When science doesn’t know, religion believes. The delusion caused by religion is when believers mistake their belief for knowledge.
II. Disbelief in the existence of any gods
A. The burden of evidence is on the theist to prove a god exists, not the other way around.
1. The theist is the one defining a god that exists, it is not the atheist defining a god and then saying it doesn’t exist.
2. If someone claims that they can fly using magic, is it the burden of the one saying they can fly to demonstrate that ability before we could reasonably be expected to believe them, or is it the burden of the skeptic to prove that they can’t fly before they can reasonably disbelieve it? Is it your burden to provide proof that leprechauns or the flying spaghetti monster does not exist?
B. Not believing in God due to lack of evidence
1. There is no argument, evidence or experiment that can positively demonstrate the existence of a god, or positive evidence.
2. Instead, all of the arguments for god are negative evidences, or gaps in scientific understanding where god might possibly exist despite not having any evidence or demonstration that he actually does. It is not sufficient to say that since we don’t know the cause of a phenomenon that god must have done it by default, but the believer needs to show evidence that it was indeed god and not a more mundane answer. Even if we conceded for the sake of argument that the big bang, evolution and all of science is wrong, it still just leaves us with not knowing, it doesn’t mean god is the default answer.
a. The god of the gaps is not-falsifiable "You can’t prove he doesn’t exist or that he didn’t do X" (onus probandi)
i. You can’t disprove the existence of the flying spaghetti monster, the invisible pink unicorn, a computer simulated universe, Russel’s teapot, or any of the thousands of gods and mythological creatures in existence.I also can’t prove you’re not joking about your belief in god, and you can’t prove I’m not god, or that I can’t fly, or that I don’t have omniscience or that I can’t predict the immediate future with 100% accuracy. Do you believe I can fly simply because you cannot prove that I am unable to do so?
ii. There are an infinite amount of possible explanations one could conjure up for the cause of the universe, if you simply pick one of those possibilities because you can’t disprove it, the odds of you being correct are essentially 1:infinity.
iii. Without positive evidence for these things, there is no reason to believe in them. The default or null hypothesis is to not accept any claim until it has been sufficiently demonstrated. There is no reason to believe god is responsible for the things we do not understand any more than there is a reason to believe the flying spaghetti monster might be, or that everything is just a dream. No one can disprove these positions because they are non-falsifiable, but there is no reason to believe in them either, without evidence. The default position is skepticism until a theory is demonstrated to be true..
iv. This logic is the fundamental problem with faith, defined as belief without evidence (often in spite of evidence.) Faith asks you to ignore evidence based on foregone conclusions and it is non-falsifiable, there are no parameters that could be met or conditions that would exist to show that the argument is wrong, making it non-testable and non-observable. Faith also offers no reliable predictions and is therefore functionally useless even if you happen to guess correctly. Good science, on the other hand, draws conclusions after the evidence has been examined, is falsifiable and testable, continues to examine it’s validity when new evidence is presented, and is useful in that it makes accurate predictions.
b. As our understanding of the universe increases, the gaps in which god can exist become smaller. God was born out of ignorance of the natural world, and the more we understand the natural world and just how natural it really is, the less room there is for god to fill those gaps in knowledge. There has never been a question that man once answered by appealing to the supernatural that we have, after investigation, found that the supernatural explanation made more sense than a natural one.
C. “Knowing” there is no god due to lack of evidence.
1. Absence of evidence IS evidence of absence – If I were to claim that there is a firebreathing dragon in my garage, the skeptic should consider three conditions:
a. The area where evidence would appear has been exhaustively examined.
b. No evidence exists, or all of the evidence is inadequate
c. The thing being proven to not exist, is the type of thing that if it existed evidence would show.
d. If these three conditions are met then there are two possibilities
1. We can safely posit that the dragon does not exist or is not there. If, for example, a bomb squad is called into a building they look for absence of evidence of a bomb, as evidence that it is safe. If the definition of the god in question involves a god that actively interacts with the physical universe, absence of evidence would be evidence that this type of god does not exist.
2. The thing in question is non-falsifiable and functionally useless (The dragon is invisible and immaterial and breaths heatless, immaterial invisible fire.)
2. A definition of the word “know”
a. There is no such thing as absolute certainty – we could be living in a dream and everything we experience is fake. There is no way to absolutely prove that in some multi-verse Santa or fairies do not exist, or that all of our evidence for scientific theories are being actively doctored by a all-powerful race of aliens controlling our minds. There is no way to “Know” Thor, or Zues, or Odin do not exist.
b. Even though I cannot “Know” there is no god with absolute certainty, I can say that I know god does not exist in the same way that I can say that I know Santa Clause does not exist or that I know the earth revolves around the sun.
II. Cosmological Arguments – The argument that every event must have a cause, the universe then must have a cause, therefore god must exist. Something can not come from nothing.
A. It is wrong.
1. A zero-sum energy (flat) universe can indeed come from the unstable energy of space, space is constantly creating virtual particles that spontaneously exist and then are annihilated. (See my other outline on the book by Lawrence Krauss, or just read the book.)
2. Nothing as a non-existence, by definition, does not exist. We have never observed ‘nothing.” We have also never observed matter being created ex nihilo, only rearranged from previous states (such as virtual particles spontaneously coming into existence in the constant low-energy of space.)
3. Quantum mechanics and radioactive decay present challenges to the entire idea of causality.
4. The prime mover variant of this argument treats rest as a special state, which is not consistent with general relativity. In other words, the prime mover argument assumes things cannot be in a natural state of motion but must be placed into motion, which is not consistent with general relativity in which rest and motion are relative to other objects.
B. This is an argument from ignorance. An argument from ignorance is when one argues that something is true, not because they can demonstrate or offer evidence that their claim is true, but because they cannot think disprove their own unsubstantiated claim. These arguments tend to attack other claims to demonstrate their validity instead of offering any evidence that they are in fact independently true. We do not know what came before the big bang, or if the laws of physics and causation as we observe them now would have even applied, but not knowing something does not give us license to insert any possible cause as the default correct answer. It’s an extraordinary leap of illogic to say that because science does not fully understand something (yet), the answer must be god. This is like ancient norsemen assuming lightning came from Thor because they did not know what else it could have been causing it. We can literally plug anything imaginable in as the answer (the flying spaghetti monster, a dream, a computer simulation, a metaverse, an eternal universe, magic etc.) Even if we completely concede that modern cosmology is completely wrong, that still leaves us with only ignorance, it doesn’t give us evidence that there is a god and, indeed, we find no such evidence. There are essentially an infinite amount of possible explanations that one could dream up for the origins of the universe that are all equally impossible to fully disprove, by picking one of them without positive evidences your odds of being correct are basically one in infinity. This is purely an argument that states “I can’t think of a better reason, therefore god.”
C. This is special pleading. It is an argument that says all laws of logic apply except for in my special case. If you can continue to ask where the matter or cause came from to cause something comes from an infinite amount of times, why should we accept the answer of god as the final answer? What caused god? How did something come from nothing and make god? What is the difference between a universe that was created by a god that always existed and and a universe that has always existed? Why is it unreasonable to suggest an infinite multi-verse as one possibility, but reasonable to suggest an infinite god? Assuming god is the answer does not solve the initial problem. Why add a unobservable layer to what we actually can observe and then give it special properties that violate what we can observe? This is called tautology, replacing and unknown with another unknown.
D. It’s a non-sequitur. There are two prongs required for causality, sufficient and necessity. Sufficiency means that if we perform an action we observe an effect, necessity means that if we do not perform the same action, we no longer observe the effect. Arguing from ignorance for god as a cause ignores necessity. First cause is not necessarily an intelligent, personal or supernatural cause. A metaphysical eternal sphere of energy, a metaverse, an eternal universe and magic are all sufficient, but not necessary, causes. Even if we could demonstrate there had to be a first cause, we are left with no evidence as to what this cause is. What evidence do we have that this is a supernatural or intelligent cause instead of a natural one, like every other observable phenomenon? At best, the first cause leaves us with a weak case for the possibility that a Deist god might exist among a near infinite other number of possible causes.
E. In summation, we don’t exactly know where the universe came from. We are working on an answer, but defaulting to god is not a very good answer as there is no evidence for this answer and it still leaves us with all of the same questions about god.
III. Teleological Argument – The argument that god must exist because things appear designed for life
A. It is wrong. We often understand exactly why order arises naturally and without invoking a god.
1. Natural selection always produces the illusion of design as traits are selected that give a species the best odds of survival / reproduction in it’s environment. Adaptation, which is observable, looks precisely like design.
2. Every phenomenon that we have ever observed thus far that appears to have order and design has been shown to be ordered by natural processes. The diffusion of gas or the formation of snowflakes, as examples, appears to be very ordered and complex and yet are explained purely by physical laws.
3. Arguments like the watchmaker argument are based on a faulty premise. They assume that we recognize design by complexity and so if we happen upon a complex device like a watch in a field we can determine it must have had a watchmaker. However, we do not know that watches are designed because they are complex but because our experience tells us they must have a designer. A painting can be very simple, but it doesn’t mean it is not designed. Consider that the grass we found our watch in is even more complex than the watch, but yet even in the argument we contrast the two as being either designed or naturally occurring. We make this distinction not on complexity but on the knowledge that watches in our experience have all had makers, we have no examples of watches reproducing or arranging themselves naturally. We do however have lots of examples of naturally occurring and reproducing grass and so we contrast the two as designed and naturally occurring. If we did not differentiate naturally between occurring things and designed things than the argument would have no premise – it would be like finding a watch in a field of watches. (Premise of argument credit to Matt Dillahunty)
B. It is an argument from ignorance. This argument looks at the fact that we exist under a certain set of universal conditions that we do not fully understand (yet) and says that our existence is proof that those conditions must have been put in place by an intelligent being because we cannot think of a better reason for those conditions being there.
1. For us to be able to observe a universe, it has to exist in such a way that it is suited for us to be able to survive in it. Our observations will then of course show that the universe appears to have been fine-tuned in such a way so as to allow our version of life to be possible, because if it were not we would not exist in this universe. There may be universes that tend towards chaos and are not conducive to life and we cannot exist within them to question why they appear so poorly suited for life. A sentient puddle that exists in a pothole might think that the pothole was so perfectly formed to hold it that it must have been designed that way, but the puddle is actually fine-tuned for the hole. (Douglas Adams)
2. Just because the universe seem fine-tuned for our version of life does not mean that if the universe had formed some other way, that life would not have also formed some other way in it. This life would have also likely wondered if the universe was fine-tuned for it.
C. It is special pleading. If the universe is too complex to have not been designed and created, why does this logic not also apply to an even more complex and organized entity such as god? Who designed god? If it follows that a complex universe demands a creator, why does it not also follow that a complex creator demands an even more complex creator?
D. It is a non-sequitor. Even if we could prove (which we can not) that the universe was specially designed for us, that does not say anything about exactly who or what designed it – it could have been just as easily been space aliens, or a computer simulation as it could be a god. When we do the research, in fact, we find the reason for the appearance of design is natural selection.
E. What about the poor designing found in nature, is this the mark of an unintelligent intelligent designer or just the indifferent laws of nature?
1. 99% of species that have ever existed are extinct, the majority of the universe is very inhospitable to life and our little planet that is suitable for life is approaching an entropic heat death – this sounds like a great design plan.
2 . There are numerous errors and poor designs in nature that exist only because of evolution. (laryngeal nerve routing for example as explained in greater detail later)
3. "When Creationists talk about God creating every individual species as a separate act, they always instance hummingbirds, or orchids, sunflowers and beautiful things. But I tend to think instead of a parasitic worm that is boring through the eye of a boy sitting on the bank of a river in West Africa, that’s going to make him blind. And, are you telling me that the God you believe in, who you also say is an all- merciful God, who cares for each one of us individually, are you saying that God created this worm that can live in no other way than in an innocent child’s eyeball? Because that doesn’t seem to me to coincide with a God who’s full of mercy.”’ – Sir David Attenborough
IV.Ontological Argument – The argument that god must exist due to a certain logic:
A.If we can imagine a perfect being then he must actually exist or else we are not imagining a truly perfect being,
1. I can imagine a maximally great uber-zombie, a zombie that is maximally efficient at eating brains, tearing down barricaded walls etc.
2. It is greater (presumably) for an uber-zombie to actually exist than to be imaginary and so one attribute of this imagine uber-zombie is that it must actually exist, it cant be imaginary or else it wouldn’t be maximally great.
3. Since we can imagine an uber-zombie that is maximally great at being a zombie, including actually existing as a zombie, it has to exist or else we could not conceive of it, it would only be imaginary and therefore not maximal.
4. Therefore, an uber-zombie exists.
5. This is the result of poorly defined grammatical terms. Who is to say that we can’t define maximally great or perfect as also being self-evident and therefore god does not exist?
B. There is a variation of this argument that argues that there are essential and non-essential features. A triangle has an essential trait of having three sides but not of being blue. An essential feature references the nature of the thing itself, a non-essential feature is attributed by something else. A triangle has three sides because it is a triangle, but it is blue not because it is a triangle but because it was made by a blue marker. Existence is non-essential and so there must be a thing that exists for which existence is essential.
1. It is wrong
a. We are defining these thing we are calling essential features grammatically. A blue triangle has blueness as an essential trait. A triangle is a non-essential polygon. A magnet does not have magnetism as an essential feature – what if it is an electromagnet? We are now defining terms into existence as whatever we want.
b. Existence is not a feature. Things have to exists to have features. An existing universe has existence as one of it’s essential traits therefore existence comes from the universe. An existing human must have existence as one of it’s traits… An existing ham sandwich etc…
2. It is an argument from ignorance – We don’t know what started existence, therefore god.
3. It is special pleading – Nothing has an essential feature of existence except for god.
4. It is a non-sequitur – Saying something must have existence as an essential feature does not tell us that this something must be intelligent or supernatural.
V. Argument from Beauty and Goodness – The argument that we can look around at the beauty and goodness in our lives and in the world and see the handiwork of god.
A. People are subjected to rape, murder, disease, suffering, famine, thirst, starvation, and are surrounded by things that are trying to kill them all over the world. 18,000 children starve to death on a daily basis.
B. Just because the world is beautiful and life is good for someone lucky enough to be a part of the minority living in a rich western country is not proof of god’s existence. Just because god helped you with your mortgage payment or cured you of your anxiety while standing idly by while nine million children under the age of five die horrible deaths each year is not proof of god.
VI. Moral Argument – The argument that god must exist or else we would have no authority upon which to base our own morality. Where does morality come from? This is addressed fully later in "the immorality of god" (Yet another God of the Gaps argument, one in which there is no gap)
VII. Argument from special knowledge, personal experience or special revelation. -The argument that god must exist because I have had personal experience, a spiritual experience or personal revelation from him.
A. Each person’s “personal experience” leads them to drastically contrasting, mutually exclusive conclusions about god. The monotheistic god of Abraham cannot exist with the polytheistic Hindu pantheon for example. What do you say to someone who is equally convinced of the truth of Islam or the truth of the Zoroastrianism out of personal experience? Why do you accept it as a miracle of god whenever your god answers a prayer request to heal a loved one’s illness for example, but would call that same situation pure happenstance if a Muslim claimed the same personal situation as proof of allah?
B. An appeal to a personal experience can only be useful to the one who experienced it. What external reason could you give to someone who had not had your experience that would cause them to believe your claim?
B. Many of these spiritual experiences are replicable in a lab setting. Researchers have shown that many spiritual experiences are actually left temporal lobe seizures and that people who suffer from left temporal lobe seizures are more obsessed with religion. Many spiritual and out of body experiences are replicated regularly in pilots when suffering from hypoxia and lack of oxygen.
C. God is not self-evident, he is the result of special revelation. If he was self-evident then everyone would believe in him by default, instead he must be revealed to you. What evidence is it that has been revealed to you that shows that he is evident at all? If you have no evidence, then your belief is only a belief, not knowledge, and is therefore no more superior or reliable than any other belief or personal experience that someone else may have had that conflicts with your own.
D. Almost universally these personal revelations and experiences lead people to religions that support the oppression of women, slavery, religious wars, oppressive laws, stoning of sinners etc and hinder scientific progress as well as political discourse. I am meant to accept that these are correct positions based on personal revelation?
VIII. Argument from free will and faith – This argument states god shows no evidence of himself because revealing himself would negate free will and/or faith..
A. The free-will argument is refuted in that satan is such a being that has explicit knowledge of god, but yet chooses not to obey him. It is also not consistent with Jesus and other holy-men using miracles to convince the uncertain.
B. Faith = Belief without evidence. Belief without a reason to believe. If you had a good reason, you wouldn’t need faith.
1. What is the value of faith, the value of believing without evidence? Why does god prefer this method over using logic and reason to come to a conclusion?
2. If faith is the ultimate trump, how then can we determine if one faith is more valuable or true than another opposing faith? Is it reasonable to provide someone who does not believe evidence that your religion is true? If so, doesn’t that mean faith should be expected to yield to evidence?
3. Why is not having faith or having faith in the wrong religion a sin that is punishable by hellfire? This is especially intriguing considering the myriad of options available to choose from, all of them equally unsupported.
4. In what other area of life or belief is it acceptable to say: I don’t care about the evidence, I believe in this concept without any evidence or despite evidence. Is it reasonable to believe in a flat earth, fairies or a heliocentric universe because of faith? The height of faith is believing something for which the evidence is contradictory. Why is this a virtue when it comes to religion, and stupidity when it comes to every other facet of life?
IX. Argument from Pascal’s Wager – The argument that asks “What if you’re wrong?” Isn’t it better to believe in god and be wrong than to not believe in god and be wrong?
A. What if Christianity is wrong, Islam is right and your making Allah very angry? What if god is really trying to test us by seeing who is willing to use reason and logic instead of blind faith? What if Satan is really god, seeing as he has committed only 10 murders in the bible and commanded no moral atrocities, and Jehovah killed 2,476,633 and commanded numerous moral atrocities (addressed later in morality of God,) and Christians are really going to hell for following a wicked deity? The point is, it is silly to apply pascal’s wager because it must be applied to every possible situation and so the theist is equally at risk.
B. “You know what it’s like not to believe in a particular faith because you’re not a Muslim… you’re not a Hindu… Why aren’t you a Hindu? Because you happen to have been brought up in in America, not in India. If you had been brought up in India, you’d be a Hindu. If you’d been brought up in Denmark at the time of the vikings, you’d be believing in Wotan and Thor. If you had been brought up in classical Greece you’d be believing in Zeus. if you had been brought up in central Africa, you’d be believing in the Great Juju up the mountain. There’s no particular reason to pick on the Judeo-Christian god in which, by the sheerest accident, you happen to have been brought up, and ask me the question, what if I’m wrong? What if you’re wrong about the great Juju in the bottom of the sea?” – Richard Dawkins’
F. Is this really even the kind of faith god wants from us? For someone who doesn’t believe and sees fault in believing to feign sincerity to appease his need for mortal worship? Is he too stupid to tell the difference or will he simply take what he can get?
G. Pascal’s wager, if valid, should be applicable to all things in life. Do you make sure to speak gently to children’s toys just in case they are secretly sentient and plotting to hurt people who mishandle them? If not, what if you are wrong? Why should I make concession for something that is just as unsubstantiated?
The Problem of Theism (Why the Judeo-Christian God is demonstrably false, as expounded on in subsequent points )
I. Theism goes much further than deism and states that not only can we know that a prime mover must have existed, but postulates who he is, what he cares about, what sides he picks in wars, what we do with our sex lives, what food we eat, what rituals we participate in… etc.
II. One definition of god
A. Holy – without sin or evil
B. Omnipotence – all powerful
C. Omniscience – all knowing
D. Omnipresence – all present, everywhere at all times
E. Personal – cares and is involved in the lives of individuals
F. Omnibenevolent – all good, all loving, all kind, all caring etc…
G. Free will – can make decisions and choices
H. Eternal – has no beginning or end, everlasting
I. Immutable – never changing, can not change his mind or his nature
III.. This god is demonstrably false
A. Inconsistent with what we would see in nature if such a god existed. (Evil, Suffering, Poor Design)
B. The actions he is said to have taken in the bible can be shown to be false, contradictory etc.
C. His attributes contradict his actions in the bible (promoting slavery, not being able to drive out a country, changing his mind etc)
C. He is self-contradictory
1. Perfect Justice cannot exist with Mercy.
2. Omniscience contradicts Free will and Omnipotence (Can he do something he did not know or foresee?)
3. Omnipotence contradicts Omnibenevolence (Can god commit a sin?)
III. The lack of evidence for Deism creates an even larger burden of proof or evidence from the theist who postulates that we can know the nature of who god is and what his desires are, as well as what actions he takes. This even begins to approach falsifiability. We may now ask where is the evidence for these actions and claims? If you definition of god is true, why does the nature of the universe appear to conflict with him? How do you know your particular brand of magic is somehow superior to all of the others? If atheists can say that we “know” that god does not exist in the deist sense due to lack of evidence, we can now falsify the various theist definitions of god and say very confidently that we know that a particular definition of god does not exist.
The Problem of Sin and Hell (Why Sin and Hell conflict with the existence of a benevolent, omnipotent, omniscient creator)
I. The Original Sin was innocent
A. Adam and Eve did not know the difference between good and evil when they broke this law (as they had not eaten of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.) How could god expect them to resist the temptation, or hold them accountable for their error when they had no concept of right and wrong yet?
B. The sin that doomed the majority of mankind to hellfire isn’t even a genuine, intrinsic, conscious pricking moral wrongdoing such as raping someone, it is more of a “because I said so” commandment akin to not breaking the speed limit.
C. Yearning for knowledge was the sin that doomed mankind. We lived in a world made for us, where we had reign and the creator of our universe’s primary focus was our well-being. Everything in this world was there for us alone, except one thing, the fruit of knowledge. To remain in this small universe designed for us, we had to remain ignorant of the truth. That was our sin, that was why we left this perfect, orderly, small world designed just for us by god and stepped out into a vast and uncaring universe- we obtained knowledge. (Sagan paraphrasing)
D. An omnipotent, omniscient "father god" could have stopped it from happening to his ignorant, innocent creation, and would have if he were Omnibenevolent, or at least would have not engineered the consequences of the fall to be so cruel, unjust and painful for all of humanity.
II. The punishment is inhumane
A. The introduction of evil into the world
1. All of mankind is now subject to sin and it’s consequences because of two people.
2. This introduces rapists, serial killers, child molesters etc…
B. The introduction of suffering – Natural Disasters, Pain, Disease, labor, poverty, famine.
C. The introduction of death
D. The creation of hell by god
1. An omnipotent being could have created any model of consequences and laws governing sin. Including peaceable ones.
2. The model god designed involves punishment for the majority of his beloved creation.
3. The model god designed involves a punishment by burning in the hottest fire for eternity, it is inhumane and cruel.
4. The model god designed involves an infinite punishment for a finite amount of sins. Why is Jesus’ three days of punishment followed by eternity in glory sufficient for all the horrible deeds any man has ever committed, but eternity suffered in hell by a good moral person who does not believe due to lack of evidence is not sufficient?
5. Why does god want to torment some of his creatures for eternity because they displeased him out of ignorance or poor judgment? Why not just annihilate them? Wouldn’t that be what a merciful creator would do? This is compounded by the fact that he does not make himself evident to his entire creation but still dangles those who haven’t even heard of him over the fires of hell if they don’t somehow find their way into your version of Christianity?
III. The punishment is unfairly inherited – all men are inescapably condemned sinners because of one man’s actions before they were even conceived. Most of them will burn in hell for nothing more than ignorance of ‘the one true god.’
IV. Saying that hell was not intended for humans is not a viable defense
A. For this to be true would mean that god did not fully know when he was creating hell that it would mostly be filled with humans, and therefore is not omniscient.
B. If it is not intended for humans, then why does he send us there? Can he not annihilate or create a less horrible version of hell, or just forgive people?
V. Free will is not a good excuse for god allowing this – see free will under evil and suffering
The Problem of Evil and Suffering (Why the evil and suffering we observe in our world is inconsistent with the Abrahamic gods.)
I. The Existence of evil and intense suffering is inconsistent with God’s Attributes
A. An omnibenevolent being would desire that there be no suffering or evil, as do even simple benevolent humans.
B. An omniscient being would know beforehand all instances of suffering and evil
C. An omnipotent being would have the power to stop all suffering and evil easily and immediately
D. An omnibenevolent, omniscient, omnipotent being cannot exist along with suffering and evil.
1. He knew the outcome of his design would be suffering and eternal hellfire for most of humanity and chose to design it this way anyways.
2. He stands still as people are murdered, raped, tortured beaten etc. despite having the knowledge of the suffering and the ability to stop it.
3. Nine million children die every year before the age of five (1,000 an hour, 17 per minute) and 18,000 children starve to death daily, ultimately the results of the consequences of their sins according to Christianity. A god who stands by and allows this to happen is either impotent or evil.
E. “Is God willing to prevent evil, but not able? Then he is not omnipotent. Is he able, but not willing? Then he is malevolent. Is he both able and willing? Then whence cometh evil? Is he neither able nor willing? Then why call him God?” – Epicurus 341BCE-270BCE
II. Free will as a defense for allowing evil
A. Free Will could exist without sin
1. This is possible, by definition, for an omnipotent being. He can, supposedly, do anything.
2. Heaven is said to be such a place – if freewill cannot exist without sin, then in heaven we could have no free will.
B. Obtaining free will was actually the original sin
a. If god allows evil to exist so that man can have free will, why did he not create us with it, and why did he punish us for obtaining it in the Garden of Eden?
b. The snake, Satan, is the true author of free will. He is the one who convinced us to take the fruit of the knowledge of good and evil.
C. Free will is not a good reason for allowing evil
a. Would you stop someone from raping your baby daughter, or allow the act even if you were able to do it because it is their "free will?"
b. If it is more moral to allow free will at the cost of preventing harm, then we should be morally opposed to imprisonment of criminals and the jail systems.
III. Any other defense of evil and suffering debunked
A. Imagine that a woman was being raped and murdered by a common thug in front of armed police officers, all of them stand by and watch it happen.
1. The first officer doesn’t intervene because it was better to let the murderer exercise free will than to restrict his rights and decisions.
2. The second officer doesn’t do anything because he thinks this would be the perfect opportunity for an unarmed bystander to show selflessness and heroism.
3. The third officer doesn’t do anything because he thinks that while this experience was horrible in and of itself, her suffering adds to the overall beauty of the big picture.
4. The fourth officer does nothing because he knows that it would be horrible to destroy all the evil in this world, because without evil, there can be no good.
5. The fifth officer is a genius and holds a doctorate in criminal law. He only says that there is no point in explaining why he did nothing, it’s too complicated for you to understand and since he is so much smarter than you, you have no right to judge. He assures you however, that he is a good person, you just can’t understand.
6. The sixth officer wanted to defend the woman but knew that if the police acted, people would be forced to believe that the police department is a real entity, have real power to make a difference, and that their presence is important in protecting the community. He would rather not force people to believe these things because they can actually see them going around intervening but instead wants people to freely have faith in the police department.
7. The seventh officer is irritated that people are angry about the situation because he just saved a woman from being raped and murdered last week. Can you really expect him to jump every time he sees something bad happening? The fact that more people aren’t raped in this city is a testament to his goodness.
8. The eighth officer is also irritated. He says that nothing he does is good enough, it would have been so much worse if he hadn’t been there. The murderer initially had a blowtorch and a vial or acid but he knocked that away from him with his nightstick because that would have been too horrible for the victim, he showed mercy on her by allowing her to only be raped and killed with a gun.
9. The ninth officer says that he has a secret. He waited for her to die and then resuscitated her and had her flown to a tropical resort. Her ordeal is just a distant memory, and this is obviously compensation enough.
10. The tenth officer reveals that he genetically engineered the woman and she was his property. He can do or allow whatever he wants with her and it would be no worse than tearing up a piece of paper from a leaflet he had purchased.
11. The eleventh officer admits that he hired the tenth officer to create her for him because he wanted her to love him and realize how great of a guy he was. Her suffering only helped to fulfill that purpose as in her last moments filled with terror and pain she turned to him and begged him for mercy.
12. The twelfth officer admits that he hired the murderer, he had been dating the woman for a while and she had told him she loved him. He hired the murderer to test her by proving her love. He wanted to see if she would still love him if he stood there and watched her being murdered and did nothing.
13. Finally the first officer assures you that you should know that when they all stood there watching her getting raped and murdered that they were suffering with her and experienced her pain. All of the other officers nod in agreement.
14. Are any of these arguments good enough to justify a mortal man who is present and armed with police authority to allow such a crime to occur? Consider that god is eternal, omnipresent, and omnipotent but yet these events happen every few minutes in his presence while he does nothing, but yet he is said to be omnibenevolent.
The Problem of Salvation and Faith (Why the plan of salvation is ridiculous, and has failed)
I.The ridiculousness of the plan
A.Demanding blood for remission of sins Heb 9:22 – Why is this the terms that god insists upon? Isn’t he the architect of the parameters regarding sin, punishment, and forgiveness? Is he not able to forgive sin without blood sacrifice? Can he not say, “No blood sacrifice necessary, I just forgive you?”
B.God sacrificing himself to himself to save us from himself by creating a loophole in the architecture for condemnation he engineered in the first place? This is your solution for which you yourself are the problem. It’s like a doctor stabbing people to be able to operate and save them.
C. Dying for someone else’s crime does not equal justice in any court.
D. The sacrifice was not a sacrifice at all.
1. Jesus is said to be eternal
2. He spent a few days in misery out of his billions of years plus of existence
3. He spent a minutiae of a fraction of his existence suffering knowing he would be resurrected after the ordeal and spend eternity in divine luxury, and that somehow provides him justification to sentence us to trillions of years of eternity suffering without end?
4. Jesus is a supernatural immortal who suffered temporary mortal punishment and then sentences mortals to supernatural eternal punishment if they do not receive his sacrifice.
5. Why is three days of punishment followed by eternity in glory sufficient for all the horrible deeds any man has ever committed, but billions of years suffered in hell by a good moral person who does not believe due to lack of evidence is not sufficient?
II. The poor delivery of the message
A. Multiple inconsistent and unclear messages without solid evidence for any of their claims, despite it being the most important message ever for all mankind from his creator. Which one do we believe? Why leave any ambiguity considering the eternal stakes?
B. Only delivered to a small portion of humanity, currently estimate that 2,251 languages, representing 193 million people, lack a Bible translation.
C. God’s Silence – Why did he speak directly and audibly to Saul of Tarsus but not individuals today?
D. Billions of people are dying and going to hell for nothing other than being born into the wrong culture and being delivered the wrong theology – God set up the requirements for sin and designed hell as a punishment, he chose the location and circumstances of billions of people’s birth into isolation from his message, engineered the circumstances of their ignorance of his word, stood by when they died without knowing, and defined their rightful punishment for not knowing about him as eternity in hellfire for rejecting the fraction of his existence he spent suffering, sacrificing himself to himself to save us from himself. (Partially paraphrased from a Sam Harris debate)
III. The Failure of the Plan
A. According to Jesus most people will go to Hell for not knowing him.
B. The Bible says god does not want people to die and go to hell and would prefer that all were saved. 2 Pet 3:9
B. If the majority of the billions of ‘specially created’ humans that God loves personally are going to die and suffer for eternity because of the infrastructure of which he is the architect, how is this a success? What would be considered a failure if not this outcome? Was he unable to before successful in fulfilling his desire that all be saved?
IV. Free will salvation is irresponsible
A. Putting eternally damning decisions in the hands of simple men who do not understand eternity or comprehend the stakes is irresponsible, especially if you are omniscient. This is like not stopping a toddler from jumping out of a moving van on the interstate. Though the toddler has no frame of reference or real concept of the consequences, it does have free-will and can make it’s own decision regardless of how potentially damaging they may permanently be.
B. Demands humans make an absolute decision using their free will, choosing from hundreds of possible gods and conflicting messages about what god expects from you. If you, using your free will, choose incorrectly, you are punished with hellfire. The evidence for which belief is the only one that won’t ultimately result in hell is not provided to help the process of choosing. If one uses free-will to examine the evidence and chooses to not believe in god or picks the wrong god because they are confused, they are irredeemable.
C. Unfair to demand a decision be made by people who have never even heard the right option, especially if you are omnipotent and could have given them your message in any way. What about Inuits or uncontacted tribes in South America?
The Problem of Morality (Why real morality is only truly possible without god)
I. Divinely Decreed Morality is Arbitrary
A. Divinely decreed morality assumes the nature of god (the decrier) is good, whatever that nature may be.
1. Is anything that god commands good as a blanket statement, or does he simply command things because they are good in and of themselves? Either god got complete creative control in deciding what was right and wrong (no matter what he decides), or he had to take into consideration other factors outside of himself when determining morality. If the first is true, then morality is arbitrarily whatever god says that it is, if the second is true then god is not needed for morality to exist.
2. For a divinely decreed morality to be an argument for god’s existence, god must have had complete control of morality and so anything god does or commands must, by definition, be good – infanticide, genocide etc. Whatever he commands must be right because he is the source, the standard for absolute morality. He could just as easily have decided that showing compassion is as depraved as beating a child to death if he alone is the author of morality.
3. This leads to moral standards and values that are demonstrably harmful for humanity and the well-being of conscious life, because god has commanded it. (Stoning witches, Banning contraception, Forced marriage, Women can’t speak over men etc)
4. If a divine command is the source of morality, then the only evil the Jihadists are committing is by having the wrong god, their actions in and of themselves would be OK if they had the right god. Also all the atrocities and injustices documented in the bible are fine because god decreed them.
B. Believers routinely ignore divinely decreed morality with their own ethics
1.Would you murder a child if commanded by god?
2. If your answer is that god would never command this because it is immoral, then was it moral for him to command Abraham to kill Issac?
3. Even if god never intended to let him go through with it, Abraham was biblically heralded as righteous for having the full intention of obeying the order to sacrifice his son. The intent to kill his child was moral according to divine decree. In fact, it would have been immoral for Abraham to not have fully intended to kill his own son after god told him it was the right thing to do.
4. So would you obey this command if you were Abraham?
a. If yes – see Point I.A.3. (And then consider the evil committed in the past by religion) Also, see a psychiatrist.
b. If no – why not? Doesn’t that mean you believe some things are intrinsically good regardless of the nature of god?
1a. Why don’t we stone homosexuals or own slaves any more, as it is written?
2a. Why don’t we kill people who mix two types of linen in their clothing, as it is written?
VI. Religious beliefs are irrelevant to morality
A. If all religions were suddenly proven wrong all at once, would you personally believe it to be true that now it is OK to rape, or to steal, or to murder? Is the only thing keeping you from doing these things the fear of a god?
B. If all religions were proven to be man-made, our ethical dilemmas and grand questions would still be the same.
C. God condones slavery, rape, genocide, infanticide and the mass killings of people for non-crimes, why do we not follow these laws given by god today if morality must come from god? This is proof we are moral without religion, indeed, our morality trumps religious teachings.
D. That morality must come from god is yet another god of the gap’s argument. The theist must demonstrate that morality must come from god and that it cannot come from elsewhere.
II. Naturally selected, Socially Driven, Empathetic and Reasoned Ethics.
A. Social. We are social species and have a survival advantage when we cooperate and are part of a group. We have, in the process, evolved social behaviors that lend themselves to the survival and strength of the group. Anthropologists long ago recognized the similar societal rules and moral codes of human civilizations that could have never contacted each other, long before organized religion was instituted. Natural selection favors those that are able to work together in groups and therefore favors empathy, peacemaking, reciprocity and social rules
B. Evolved. Animals display morality, especially social animals that are genetically similar to us.
1. Mammals must care for their dependent offspring,often putting their own safety and well-being aside, unlike reptiles, amphibians, insects etc. Natural selection favors the parents who ensure the survival of their children to reproductive age.
2. Rats will forego food to free other trapped rats in laboratory experiments.
3. Male Chimpanzees show no aggression and do not act aggressively towards chimpanzees with cerebal palsy, even when they break social rules (knuckles the chimp.)
4. Diana monkeys will help to teach other untrained monkeys how to put tokens into a food dispensing device without taking the untrained monkeys food, despite no reward.
5. Domestic dogs have been shown to share treats if one is continously given treats and the other is denied treats.
6. Vampire bats will share their prey with other bats who have been unsuccessful in a hunt, they are more likely to share their prey with those who have shared with them in the past.
C. Neurological. Neuroscience has discovered mirror neurons that fire when watching someone else perform an action or undergo an experience, and a separate set of neurons that are feedback or empathy neurons that cancel the mirrored signal to tell your brain not to actually feel the sensation or undergo the action.
1. Could possibly explain the neurological roots of empathy and morality
2. Are consistent with evolutionary theory in explaining the rapid spread of tool use, agriculture and human success in evolution.
3. Are not as active or present in sociopaths
D. Empathetic. Concern for well-being of other conscious life drives morality.
1. This is especially true of life similar to our own, that we can empathize with
2. We have more moral concern for humans than monkeys, ants than bacteria, no concern for rocks
E. Reasonable. The most moral decision is the one that has the best overall impact on the well-being of conscious life, the one that minimizes harm.
1. The more we know about the impact our decision will have on life, the better moral decisions we can make. We can address moral grey areas not arguing about what an ancient book says or doesn’t say as even Christians do among themselves, but by forming reasoned, thoughtful opinion based on fact and science.
2. This is why even Christians reject the morality proposed by their god when it is obviously wrong such as in commandments stoning homosexuals – they recognize it is not what is best for humanity. If god was the true source of morality, it would be fine to carry out these cruel and inhumane punishments as he prescribed in the bible.
3. A great example of this is the Catholic church’s position and Mother Theresa’s main crusade against the use of contraception which can be demonstrated to be a harmful teaching to take to third world countries, contributing to overpopulation and the spread of STD’s. It is rationally immoral, but yet they teach it as a moral obligation because god said so, without reason or thought.
A. The bible is so unclear on morality as to leave modern Christian’s split on the issues.
B. Old Testament Morality
1. Human Sacrifice
a. God commands Abraham to sacrifice Isaac (Gen 22)
b. Anything devoted to God, of man or beast, shall be put to death (Lev 27:28-29).
c. God’s anger is sometimes turned away by killing people (Num 25:4, 8, 2 Sam 21).
d. Jephthah sacrifices his daughter to fulfil his vow to God (Judges 11:29-39).
e. Mesha, King of Moab, sacrifices his firstborn (2 Kings 3:27).
f. Prisoners of war are sacrificed (1 Sam 15:33, 2 Sam 21:1-9, Num 21:2).
g. A messiah will be beaten and crucified to pay the penalty for man’s sin. Ps 22, Is 53
2. Animal Sacrifice
a. Much of exodus, Leviticus and Deuteronomy are devoted to the manner in which animals are to be slaughtered, smeared onto the people, distributed, burnt and eaten.
b. 22,000 oxen, 120,000 sheep sacrificed at dedication of Solomon’s temple (1 Kings 8:63, 2 Chron 6).
c. Blood of the sacrificial animals is to be smeared over thr priests and the people (Ex 29:20, 12, 21, Lev 4:6-7,17-18, 25, 30, 34, 5:9, Ezek 43-46).
d. A heifer is to be killed if a man is found murdered by someone unknown (Deut 21:1-9).
a. Much of the old testament is a record of Israel’s wars, with god as their protector and champion.
b. Psalmist prays for God to be on his side in war (Ps 35:1ff).
c. David is praised for ten thousand slain (1 Sam 18:6-8).
d. David wars on the Geshurites, Gezrites and Amalekites to steal
their land (1 Sam 27:8).
e. With the Lord’s approval, Joshua mows down Amalek and his people. EX 17:13
4. Genocide and Slaughter
a. Genocide is a tool used by god to further israel’s interests. It is usually unclear what the exterminated had done to deserve annihilation other than being in the way of the israelites or worshipping a different god.
b. The Israelites slaughter Hamor and his city and plunder it (Gen 34).
c. Moses is commanded by God to exterminate the Canaanites, the Amorites and the people of Bashan "and show no mercy" (Deut 7:1-2, 9:3, Num 21).
d. Moses orders "every man" among the Israelites to slay his brother, companion and neighbor, as a punishment for the idolatry of all, and 3000 die (Ex 32:27-28).
e. God commands Moses to slaughter 24,000 people and hang their heads in the sun (Num 25).
f. God commands Moses to slay the Midianites because the Israelites are seduced by them. All males (including infants) and adult women are killed; virgins are enslaved (Num 25:17,31:1-2, 7, 15-18).
g. God’s annihilation of Sihon’s people and others (Deut 2:30-35, 36, 3:1-7).
h. God commands Moses, in any city near the promised land which does not agree to become a vassal state of the Israelites, to kill all the males and take the women and children as slaves and the animals as booty, but in any city in the promised land the Israelites are to kill every living thing, sparing no one (Deut 20:10-17).
i. Joshua, with the help of God, annihilates numerous tribes and cities, "left none breathing," "destroyed all that breathed, as God commanded" (Josh 6:21, 8:24-27, 10:, 11:11,14,21-22).
j. Judah slays 10,000 Canaanites (Judg 1:4) and 10,000 Moabites (Judg 3:29)
k. Danites destroy "peaceful" Laish and kill its people for no reason (Judg 18:27).
l. Judah and Simeon utterly destroy Zephath (Judg 1:17).
m. Samuel tells Saul that God wants to annihilate the Amalekites, including infants and women, which Saul then does, slaying all the inhabitants except Agag the king (1 Sam 15:1-9).
n. David leaves no man or woman alive in the countries he invades: Geshurites, Gezrites and Amalekites (1 Sam 27:9,11).
o. David takes Rabbah and puts its people "under saws…and harrows… and axes of iron and made them pass through thebrickkiln" and does the same to all the cities of Ammon (2 Sam 12:31, 1 Chr 20:3).
p. David executes 2/3 of Moab by measuring a line (2 Sam 8:2).
q. More slaughter by David (2 Sam 8:5, 13, 10:18).
r. God helps Judah kill 50,000 Israelites (2 Chr 13:17).
s. Esther gets permission for the Jews to slaughter all their enemies, including women and children, which they do, then celebrate it and institute the feast of Purim to remember it
(Esther 8:11, 9:1-19).
t. "Let none [of Babylon] escape" (Jer 50:29).
u. "Slay utterly old and young, both maids and little children," says God (Ezek 9:6).
5. Cruelty, Barbarity and Violence
a. God requires all male infants to have their penises mutilated (Gen 17:10-27).
b. God orders horses to be hamstrung (Josh 11:6).
c. Judah cuts off thumbs and toes of his captive Adonibezek, which is justified because he had done it to his captives (Judg 1:6-7).
d. Samuel "hewed [King] Agal in pieces before the Lord" (1 Sam15:33).
e. David boasts of his cruelty (2 Sam 22:41-43).
f. David pays 200 foreskins as dowry (1 Sam 18:27).
g. David "shed blood causeless" (1 Sam 18:31).
h. David’s treatment of captive people of Rabbah: he "cut them with
saws, put them "under harrows of iron, and under axes of
iron, and made them pass through the brickkiln" (1 Chron
20:3, 2 Sam 12:31).
i. Jehu has Jezebel killed and her body mutilated (2 Kings 9:3-37).
j. Ahab’s family are slaughtered (2 Kings 9, 10); this is praised by God (10:30).
k. "Happy shall be he that taketh and dasheth thy little ones against the stones [in revenge]" (Ps 137:9).
l. Samaria’s infants will be dashed in pieces, pregnant women ripped up (Hos 13:16).
m. Other dashing of infants, ripping of pregnant women (2 Kings 8:12, 15:16, Isa 13:15-18, Hosea 10:14).
n. The righteous will laugh when their enemies fall (Ps 52:6).
o. Cruelty, vengeance and hatred permeate the Psalms, e.g. 59:10-13, 68:21-23, 109:6-14, 139:19-22, 140:10.
p. Hell, which God created for punishment of his creatures, is a place of everlasting torment and cruelty (Rev 14:11, 16:9), a continuation of God’s torment of unbelievers in this life (Deut 28:15-68, Lev 26)
q. David praying for the death of someone who spoke against him, and that his children become poor vagabonds hated by all. Ps109:1-115
6. Deceit, Treachery
a. Jacob and his mother deceive dying Isaac so that Jacob receives his birthright blessing. This is how the Israelites become God’s chosen people i.e., god honors the deceit Gen 27.
b. Jacob’s sons promise Shechem their sister Dinah, but slaughter him instead, and the whole city (Gen 34).
c. God instructs Israelite women to borrow the Egyptian women’s jewelry and not return it (Ex 3:22).
d. Rahab the harlot, who betrayed her city to Joshua, is rewarded for her treachery with her life and becomes an ancestress of Jesus (Josh 6:22-25, Matt 1:5, Heb 11:31).
e. David on his deathbed breaks his promise to Shimei not to kill him and instead arranges to have him killed (1 Kings 2:8-9,2 Sam 19:21-23).
f. Elijah is to anoint Hazael king of Syria (1 Kings 19:15) but Hazael becomes king by treacherously lying to Benhadad and murdering him, following the instructions of Elisha (2 Kings 8:8-15).
g. Jehu uses treachery to destroy the worshippers of Baal (2 Kings10:18-28).
a. Lamech is the first polygamist (Gen 4:19).
b. Polygamy is discouraged in the king (Deut 17:17).
c. Abraham takes Hagar as wife while married to Sarah (Gen 16).
d. Abraham has concubines (Gen 25:6).
e. Isaac takes more wives. Gen 26:34-35
f. Jacob married Leah and Rachel (Gen 29, 31:50; this violates Lev 18:18).
g. Rachel gives Jacob her maid, Leah also (Gen 30:1-4, 9-13; in this Jacob violates his covenant at Gen 31:50)
h. Gideon has 70 sons "by many wives" (Judg 8:30).
i. David had many wives, violating Deut 17:17 (1 Sam passim, e.g. 25:42-43, 2 Sam 3:2-5, 5:13-16), but God gave them to David (2 Sam 12:8).
j. Solomon had 700 wives, 300 concubines (1 Kings 11:3; Song 6:8 says 60 wives, 80 concubines, and "virgins without number").
k. Rehoboam had many wives (2 Chron 11:18-23).
l. Law provides for protection for the son of a polygamous wife whose husband hates her, but no protection for the hated wife herself (Deut 21:15-16).
m. Law about authorizing polygamy (Ex 21:10).
n. God will use polygamy as a punishment (Isa 4:1).
a. Boaz pays Ruth in barley for spending the night with him (Ruth 3:15).
b. Leah buys sex with Jacob by giving Rachel the mandrakes which Reuben had harvested (Gen 30:14-16).
c. God orders Hosea to purchase a harlot (Hos 1:2, 3:1-2).
9.Abuse of Women
a. A mother is unclean for twice as long after the birth of a daughter as after a son (Lev 12).
b. A woman is "unclean" during her menstrual period and for seven days afterward, i.e. for approximately half her adult life and is not allowed to come into contact with men. (Lev 15:19-28, Ezek 18:6). To purify herself each month she
must make a "sin offering" (Lev 15:29-30).
c. Only males can enter the covenant, since it requires the rite of circumcision.
d. Adam blames Eve for his sin in the Garden (Gen 3:12).
e. Eve’s curse is that Adam shall rule over her (Gen 3:16).
f. A wife is listed among her husbands property, after the house (Ex 20:17, Deut 5:21).
g. God gives the Israelites rules and regulations for selling their daughters (but not their sons) into slavery (Ex 21:7-11).
h. Miriam is made a leper temporarily for speaking against Moses (Num 12:1-10), but Aaron, who was equally guilty, is not punished.
i. Moses enslaves 32,000 virgins (Num 31:18, 35).
j. Israelites slaughter their fellow Israelites of Jabesh-Gilead to obtain wives (Judg 21:1-14).
k. Males of Benjamin are advised to get wives by abducting women of Shiloh (Judg 21:16-23).
l. A divorced woman is as unclean as a whore and unsuited as the wife of a priest (Lev 21:7, Ezek 44:22).
m. A woman cannot remarry her first husband if she married another and was widowed or again divorced (Deut 24:1-4).
n. Rules for taking a captive woman to wife and what to do if you decide you don’t like her after all (Deut 21:10-14).
o. A rape victim must marry her rapist. The rapist must pay a penalty to the victim’s father, but not to her (Deut 22:28-29).
p. If a man has sex with another man’s female slave, the slave is to be scourged, but the man will be forgiven if he offers a ram as sacrifice (Lev 19:20-22).
q. A man may divorce his wife, but there is no provision for a wife to divorce her husband (Deut 24:1, Jer 3:8, Isa 50:1, Matt 19:9, 1 Cor 7:10, Rom 7:2-3).
r. A man who is suspicious of his wife may require her to undergo the ordeal of drinking the "bitter water that causeth the curse," which causes the thigh to rot and the belly to swell
s. Absalom has sex with his father’s (David’s) concubines to insult him. David then punishes the concubines by imprisoning them for life (2 Sam 16:21-22, 20:3).
t. David purchases Michal from Saul (2 Sam 3:13).
u. God will punish the men by causing their wives to be ravished (Isa 13:16, Zech 14:2).
v. Judah condemns Tamar to be burned for harlotry, when he himself had been her patron (Gen 38:24).
10. Abandonment of family
a. Abraham casts Hagar and Ishmael out, leaving them destitute (Gen 16:6, 21:14).
b. Hagar abandons Ishmael to die (Gen 21:15).
c. Abraham sends away his concubines and children (Gen 25:6).
d. A freed slave who will not abandon his slave wife and children shall have his ear pierced and remain a slave for life (Ex 21:4-6).
e. To please God, the Jews abandon all their foreign wives and children (Ezra 10).
a. Homosexuality is forbidden; its punishment is to be "cut off" or killed (Lev 18:22, 20:13, Deut 23:17, 1 Cor 6:9).
b. Permitting homosexuality is a worse sin than permitting rape of a woman (Gen 19:1-8, Judg 19:22-29).
a. David shakes down Nabal. Abigail pays him (1Sam 25).
a. God will cause cannibalism as a punishment (Jer 19:9, Ezek 5:10, Lev 26:29, Deut 28:53-57, Isa 49:26, Lam 2:20; fulfilled: Lam 4:10, 2 Kings 6:26-29)
a. Noah institutes slavery (Gen 9:25-26).
b. Abraham had slaves (Gen 17:12, 23).
c. Isaac gives Jacob his brothers as slaves (Gen 27:37, 40).
d. God frees the Israelites from slavery, but they themselves owned slaves (Ex 12:44).
e. General rules that allow for possession of slaves, e.g. a Hebrew may be kept enslaved by another Hebrew for only six years: Lev 19:20, 25:44-54, Ex 21:2-11, Deut 15:12ff.
f. Jeremiah condemns Israel for not releasing their Israelite slaves after six years (as commanded at Ex 21:2), but does not condemn slavery in general (Jer 34:13-18).
g. There is no punishment for killing your own slave by beating if the slave does not die immediately (Ex 21:20-21). But if the beating causes loss of an eye or a tooth, the slave is
freed (v 26-27). Thus, the equivalent value of freedom is one tooth.
h. Damages to the owner for killing his slave is 30 shekels of silver (Ex 21:32).
i. A freed slave who will not abandon his slave wife and children shall have his ear pierced and remain a slave for life (Ex 21:4-6, cf. Deut 15:16-17).
j. God will use slavery as a punishment (Deut 28:32, 41, 68, Judg 2:14, Joel 3:8).
k. God commands the people to enslave themselves to Nebuchadnezzar, his "servant" (Jer 27:2-13).
l. God will enslave the children of the enemies of Judah (Joel 3:8, Isa 14:2).
m. Slavery is better than death (Jer 27:13).
16. Religious intolerance
a. Kill a false prophet (Deut 13:1-5, 18:20).
b. Kill anyone who teaches you another religion, even a member of your family (Deut 13:1-11, 18:20).
c. Kill anyone who apostatizes from the true religion (Deut 17:2-5).
d. Every knee shall bow, every tongue confess, i.e., there will be no toleration of other religious beliefs (Isa 45:23, Phil 2:10-11, Rom 14:11, Dan 7:27, Isa 2:2-4).
e. Places of false worship should be destroyed (Deut 12:1-3).
f. Elijah kills 450 priests of Baal with his own hand (1 Kings 18:40).
17. Obscene, Offensive, Indecent or Erotic Passages
a. Rules for the Israelites how they should bury their feces so that God doesn’t have to see it (Deut 23:12-14) .
b. Isaac has sex with his wife in public (Gen 26:8).
c. David exposes himself in public (2 Sam 6:20-22).
d. Absalom has sex with David’s concubines so that all can see (2Sam 16:20-22).
e. God will punish David by giving his wives to another to enjoy in public view (2 Sam 12:11)
f. Wicked whoredoms of Aholah and Aholibah are described, with explicit references to breast massage, the large size of penises ("like donkeys") and the abundance of the male ejaculate ("like horses"). Ezek 23, esp v 3, 8, 17-21.
g. God will "spread dung upon your faces" (Mal 2:3).
h. Rehoboam boasts that his finger is thicker than his father’s penis 1Kings 12:10, 2Chron 10:10
i. God will punish Jerusalem by making them eat barley cakes made with human dung, except God gives Ezekiel cow dung for bread instead (Ezek 4:12-15).
j. Song of Songs, an erotic love poem.
C. Morality of God
1. God Created everything (Prov 26:10, Col 1:16) including evil. Isa 45:7, Amos 3:6, Lam 3:38
2. God is unquestionably just and righteous in all of his works Duet 32:4, Dan 9:14
3. God should be feared because he can send you to hell Matt 10:28, Luke 12:5, Heb 10:31
4. God causes blindness, deafness and dumbness Ex 4:11
5. God causes suffering so that his great works can be demonstrated John 9:1-9, 11:4, Isa 30:20, Ezek 38:16
6. God Kills Deut 32:29, 1 Sam 2:6
7. God causes rain, tempest, drought and hurricanes Job 5:10, 37:2-12, Isa 30:30, 42:15, Matt 5:45
8. God sends lying spirits and deceives prophets before destroying them 1 Kings 22:19-23, 2 Thess 2:11, Ezek 14:9, Num 23:19, 1 Sam 15:29, Tit 1:2
9. God hates violence of mankind so he violently destroys all life Gen 6:11-13, Ezek 8:17
10. God rejoices in the destruction of sinners Deut 28:63, Ps 37:13, Pr 1:26
11. God sends evil spirits 1 Sam 16:14, 18:10, 19:9, Judge 9:23
12. God tempts and can lead mankind into temptation Gen 22:1, Matt 6:13
13. God tried to kill moses Ex 4:24
14. God assists manslaughter Ex 21:13
15. God stirs up jealousy Isa 42:13, Deut 32:21
16. God Sends false prophets to test people Deut 13:1-3
17. God gives false laws, commandments and statutes. Ezek 20:25-26
18. Sends delusions and lies so that people might be damned 2 Thess 2:11-12, Isa 6:9-12, Mk 4:12
19. Lists punishments, including cannibalism, he will carry out to disobedient Lev 26, Deut 28
20. Sends locusts and pests to eat crops Joel 2:25
21. Becomes angry when Saul doesn’t kill enough 1 Sam 15:18-19, 28:18
22. Ends a famine after seven innocent men are hanged 2 Sam 21 (v14)
23. God is Jealous Ex 20:5, Num 25:11, Deut 5:9, Josh 24:19
24. Repents Gen 6:6, Ex 32:14, 1 Sam 15:11, 35, 2 Sam 24:16, Jonah 3:10, Jer 18:10, Joel 2:13
25. God demands blood as a sacrifice Lev 3:2, 4:6-7, Gen 8:21, Lev 1:9, Ezek 20:40-41
26. God’s sword is covered with blood and greasy fat Isa 34:6
27. God belches fire and smoke in anger Ps 18:7-8, 15
28. God has commanded drunkeness Jer 25:27
29. God rewards fools and transgressors Prov 26:10
30. Kills Uzzah for trying to steady the ark 1 Chron 13:10, 2 Sam 6:7
31. Allows David to choose the punishment inflicted on the people for David’s sin 2 Sam 24:11-13
32. Tricks David into a census and then vents his anger on the people, killing 70,000 2 Sam 24:1
33. Hardens pharaoh’s heart so that he can punish him and his people and commands moses to threaten pharaoh with murder Ex 4:21-23, 7:3, 13, 10:1
34. God hardens people’s hearts Rom 9:18
35. Considers the handicap, illegitimate children and their descendants, or men with injured genitalia inferior and unworthy to enter the congregation . Lev 21:17-23, Deut 23:1-2
36. God uses his chosen people to punish other nations Ps 149:5-9
37. God punishes many for the sins of one, the innocent are punished for the guilty, especially their guilty ancestors Deut 28:41; Gen 9:24-25, 20:7,18, Ex 12:29, 20:5, 34:7, Num 16, Deut 5:9, 23:2, 28:32, 41, Josh 7:8-26, 22:20, 2 Kings 5:27, Isa 14:21, Ezek 23:25, 46-47, Mal 1:2-4, Jer 31:29-30, Hos 2:4-5, Rom 5:14, also Adam’s Fall generally in NT)
38. God will punish the men by causing their wives to be ravished and their children to be "dashed to pieces" (Isa 13:16, 18, Zech 14:2, Nah 3:10)
39. God’s punishment of entire nations or cities by destroying every living thing naturally includes the destruction of babies and unborn embryos (e.g. Isa 34, the Flood, the plagues on Egypt, Sodom; Jesus also: Matt 11:20-24).
40. God will cause adultery as punishment (Deut 28:30).
41. God will cause drunkenness as punishment (Jer 13:12-13).
42. God will "spread dung upon your faces" as punishment (Mal 2:3).
43. God punishes one third of the human race (the descendents of Ham) because one man’s nakedness was seen by his son (Gen 9:24-25).
44. God punishes Pharaoh and Abimelech because of Abraham’s lie about Sarah. Abraham is not punished for lying (Gen 12:14-20, 20:18).
45. God turns Lot’s wife into salt for looking back (Gen 19:26).
46. God kills for Onan for "spilling his seed on the ground" (Gen 38:10).
47. God endorses Judah condemning Tamar to death by burning for harlotry (Gen 38:24).
48. God kills all of Egypt’s firstborn, including animals, to punish Pharaoh (Ex 12:29).
49. God will punish an animal with death if it grazes on the mountain while he is there (Ex 19:12)
50. Miriam is made a leper temporarily for speaking against Moses (Num 12:1-10), but Aaron, who was equally guilty, is not punished.
51. God punishes the Israelites for complaining about their food, first by sending fire to kill them (Num 11:1), then by sending poisonous snakes to kill many (Num 21:4-6).
52. God punishes the Israelites with plague for eating the quails he sent (Num 11:33).
53. God kills Korah and 250 others, with their families, because they questioned Moses’ authority (Num 16:1-40).
54. God kills another 14,700 by plague, for murmuring against the punishment of Korah (Num 16:41-50).
55. Nadab and Abihu are burnt to death for offering "strange fire" (Lev 10:1-5).
56. Achan and his children and animals are burned to death for Achan’s crime of keeping booty (Josh 7:8-26).
57. God smites a whole city with hemorrhoids as punishment for taking the ark (1 Sam 5:6-9).
58. God kills 50,000 men of Beth-shemesh because they looked into the Ark (1 Sam 6:19).
59. God kills Nabal for refusing to be extorted by David and gives David Nabal’s wife (1 Sam 25:38).
60. God kills David’s child in order to punish David (2 Sam 12:15-18).
61. God will punish David by giving his wives to another to enjoy in public view (2 Sam 12:11-12).
62. God does not punish Solomon for Solomon’s sin, but punishes Solomon’s son (1 Kings 11:9-12).
63. God kills a prophet for believing a lie told by another prophet of God (1 Kings 13).
64. God causes a lion to kill a man because he refused to strike a prophet when commanded (1 Kings 20:35-36).
65. God causes 42 children to be killed by bears because they tease Elisha about his baldness (2 Kings 2:23-24).
66. God caused cannibalism as a punishment (Lam 4:9-11, 2 Kings 6:26-29).
67. God will punish Samaria by allowing their infants to be dashed to pieces and their pregnant women to be ripped up (Hos 13:16).
68. God strikes a sorcerer with blindness for trying to dissuade a
potential convert (Acts 13:6-12).
69. God causes infant sacrifice (Ezek 20:26).
70. God is a "man of war" and causes war between people for his glory. (Ex 15:3 Deut 3:22 2 Sam 22:35, Ps 18:34, 144:1 Ps 24:8 Ezek 38:16, 23)
D. Morality of Jesus
1. Endorsed stoning disobedient children in Mat 15:3-6,
2. Approved of god’s OT killings and said that one day he will do the same Matthew 24:37, Matthew 10:14-15.
3. Condemned entire cities to hellfire for not believing Matthew 11:21-24.
4. He perpetuated racism Mark 7:26-27, Matthew 15:22-26
5. Came not to bring peace, but a sword Matt 10:34
6. Requires disciples to hate their family Luke 14:26, Matt 10:37
7. Came to turn children against their parents and vice versa Matt 10:21, 35, Luke 12:51-53
8. Rejects his mother Matt 12:48, Mark 3:33, John 2:4
9. Spoke a great deal more about hell and condemnation than heaven.
E. New Testament Morality
1. Everlasting torment of god’s creatures in hell, as well as suffering of and torment of non-believers during the tribulation (Rev 14:11, 16:9, Rev 9:3-10)
2. Injustice towards Women
a. No woman can have authority over a man 1 Tim 2:12
b. Women should keep silent in churches 1 Cor 14:34
c. Woman is subordinate to man 1 Cor 11:3-11, Eph 5:22-33, 1 Pet 3:1-6
d. Women have to cover their head when praying, men do not. 1 Cor 11:5
e. Man may divorce or “put away” his wife, but no provision for woman to do the same. Matt 19:9, 1 Cor 7:10, Rom 7:2-3
a. Is a sin and causes one to be reprobate Romans 1:26-28
b. Effeminate men cannot be saved 1 Cor 6:9
a. Slaves are to obey their masters, especially if the master is christian 1 Tim 6:1-2, Tit 2:9-10, Eph 6:5, Col 3:22
b. Slaves should accept their state 1 Cor 7:21-24, 1 Pet 2:18
5. Relgious Intolerance
a. Do not bid Godspeed or be friends with a non-Christian 2 John 10, 2 Cor 6:14
b. Do not question god Matt 4:7, 7:15, 24:11, 24:24-26, 1 John 2:27, Rom 9:20, 2 Cor 10:5-6, Col 2:4, 1 Tim 6:3-4, 6:20-21, Tit 3:9-10, 2 Pet 2:1-3
F. Defending the evils of the bible by saying the Old Testament no longer applies.
1. God is immutable and so therefore still the same god that commanded these atrocities with the same evil personality and moral standards. Malachi 3:6, Heb 3:8
2. The Ten commandments and laws about homosexuality come from the OT
3. Jesus said he did not come to abolish the law. Mat 5:17, Luk 16:17
4. If Jesus was god on earth and the old testament is allegorical, flawed or obsolete, why didn’t he say something? Instead he appears to endorse ‘every jot and tittle’.
5. To those who say those parts are not inspired by god… Isn’t god omnipotent and omniscient? How is it that he cannot get a simple message out that doesn’t contain error? How can he expect me to take him seriously when the only source of knowledge we have that he even exists is full of internal and external error, as well as moral atrocity?
6. The New testament commands enough moral atrocities to be wrong without the OT
V. Religious immorality
A. Evils of religion in general
1. Vilification of homosexuals
2. Demonization of other religions (“Pagans are evil devil-worshippers”)
3. People and animals sacrificed as offerings
4. Women treated as inferiors
5. Children being indoctrinated to be fearful of science and scientific inquiry
6. Tens of thousands tortured and killed as witches
7. Millions of cats killed because they were familiars for witches, leaving europe unprotected against rats and directly contributing to the spread of the bubonic plague
8. People dying because they believe their religion makes them immune to snake venom or other taking other lethal risks
9. People bothering me at home to sell me their religion
10. People choked, starved, poisoned and beaten to death during exorcisms
11. Male and Female genital mutilation
12. Psychological and Physiological conditions being blamed on demons, preventing believers from seeking or encouraging others to seek medical care
13. People disowning their family and friends for leaving their religion
14. Abstinence-only education leading to five times the amount of STD’s and teenage pregnanacies, which then lead to forced ill-fated marriages due to religious belief.
15. Campaigns against safe sex causing the spread of STD’s and contributing greatly to the AID’s epidemic in Africa.
16. People dying and letting their children die because their religion restricts medical care
17. Censorship of freedom of speech
18. Believers whipping, impaling, poisoning or crucifying themselves during religious festivals as a demonstration of their faith and piety.
19. Children spending the period of their lives when the brain is most receptive to learning new information reading, rereading, and even memorizing religious texts.
20. People who believe the world is about to end neglect their education, are not financially responsible, and in extreme cases take part in mass suicides.
21. Environmental issues ignored because of beliefs that God will magically fix everything.
22. Wives told they will be tortured forever if they leave their abusive husbands.
23. People in times of trouble relying on advice from religious leaders without any sort of training in counseling or therapy.
24. Holy wars – followers of different faiths (or even the same faith) killing each other in the name of their (benevolent, loving and merciful) gods.
25. The destruction of great works of art considered to be pornographic/blasphemous, and the persecution of the artists.
26. Persecution/punishment of blasphemers (Salman Rushdie still has a death sentence on him), and blasphemy laws in general.
27. Slavery condoned by religious texts.
28. Children traumatized by vivid stories of eternal burning and torture to ensure that they’ll be too frightened to even question religion.
29. Terminal patients in constant agony who would end their lives if they didn’t believe it would result in eternal torture.
30. School boards having to spend time and money and resources on the fight to have evolution taught in the schools.
31. Persecution of Heretics/scientists, like Giordano Bruno (burned at the stake) and Galileo Galilei.
32. Blue laws forcing other businesses to stay closed so churches can generate more revenue.
33. Mayors, senators, and presidents voted into office not because they’re right for the job, but because of their religious beliefs.
34. Abuse of power, authority and trust by religious leaders (for financial gain or sexual abuse of followers and even children) –
35. People accepting visual and auditory hallucinations unquestioningly as divine, sometimes with fatal results.
36. Suicide bombers, who are certain they will be rewarded in heaven.
37. Discrimination against atheists, such as laws stating they may not hold public office or testify in court.
38. Missionaries destroying/converting smaller, "heathen" religions and cultures.
39. Hardship compounded by the guilt required to reconcile the idea of a fair god with reality ("why is God punishing me? What have I done wrong? Don’t I have enough faith?"). Source(s): Mother Teresa, prolonging the agony of terminal patients and denying them pain relief, so she can offer their suffering as a gift to her god.
40. Suppression of logical and critical thought.
41. Billions spent to build, maintain, and staff houses of worship.
42. Grief and horror caused by the belief that dead friends and family members are tortured as punishment for disbelief.
43. Opposition to scientific (especially medical) progress on religious grounds.
44. Whole societies divided by minor differences in belief or doctrine, often resulting in violence.
45. Natural disasters and other tragedies used to claim God is displeased and present demands to avoid similar events (it’s like terrorism, but without having to plan or do anything).
46. The attempted genocide of followers of a particular faith (e.g. the Jewish Holocaust, "ethnic cleansing" in former Yugoslavia).
B. One could say that no true Christian would do these things (which is a logical fallacy called the "no true Scotsman" fallacy,) or that they are being taken out of context to justify their actions, but why wouldn’t an omniscient omnipotent being foresee these problematic verses in his bible causing these problems and write them more clearly? Doesn’t this make these bible passages irrelevant today?
C. There are direct scientific correlations between education and violence in a country or population (including prisons) and the religiousness of that group showing that the more secular the society, the less violent. Prisons for example, have one of the highest concentrations of professed Christians in the world, whereas scientists (according to ASA) are about 93%
The Problem of god’s origin (Why god is actually an evolution of other gods)
I. Judaeo-Christian monotheism began as pagan polytheism when abraham journeyed into Canaan.
A. The god(s)
1. El Elyon- (God most high) The chief god of the Canaanite pantheon, and the name by which Abraham and Isaac refer to their god. (El Elyon is the name for god in the bible)
2. Elohim – Plural, the entire pantheon of Canaanite gods by which the bible refers to the creators of heaven, earth and mankind (Let us make man in our image.)
3. Baal – The son of El in the cannanite pantheon. The Jews often defected from Yaweh to Baal, or worshipped both simultaneously. Yahweh even states that he is jealous of the worship of these Canaanite gods.
4. Asherah – The wife of El and later Yahweh. Jewish inscriptions on religious items and tablets from the 8th and 9th centuries invoke blessings from Asherah and are reverential towards her.
5. Yahweh Sabaoth (Lord of the Armies) – An Edomite god, one of seventy sons of El who was given Israel as his portion by his father El. This is supported in the Dead Sea Scrolls in Deuteronomy 32:8–9, in which El gives each member of his family a divine portion "according to the number of the divine sons." Yahweh is given Israel.
6. Reseph, Deber, Malgog etc… – Multiple cananite gods are mentioned, without challenge to their existence or divinity, in the original hebrew texts. (Habakkuk 3:5)
7. Allah (the Muslim god) was also, similarly, the head of an Arab Pantheon of polytheistic gods before he was redefined by Muhammad.
B.The evolution from polytheism to monotheism.
1. Moses’ god was a tribal god. The divinity or existence of the other Egyptian or Canaanite gods is never challenged in the bible early on by El Elyon, in fact he is depicted as jealous of having ‘other gods’ worshipped before him and the Jews praised him, acknowledging that there were ‘No other gods like you.’
2. Abraham had a conversational, approachable disposition towards a god who was readily available to visit with him, even disagreeing with him in conversation. These close at hand, approachable gods are shared with the cannanite religion, who could be invoked and communicated with casually. The Canaanites even believed they could be controlled by inciting their names, which is reflected in the story of Jacob wrestling and winning against god, but god refusing to give him his real name.
3. The jews constantly went back and forth between Baal, Yawheh, and Asherah in their worship. A devoted group called Yawhehist started to call for the singular worship of only Yawheh around the time that the babylonians invaded. (The early prophets) King Josiah, unlike prior kings of Israel, was a yawhehist. He ‘found’ a ‘lost book of the Torah’ and used it to enforce devotion to Yawheh alone (the book of deuteronomy.)
4. It is not until the Jews are exiled from their local Jerusalem that they begin to clearly and coherently acknowledge that Yahweh was not just a local god, and could be worshipped even in Babylon. This is when Isaiah was writing and is the first plainly monotheistic Jewish scripture. Isaiah is the first book that asserts that El Shaddai, Elohim etc are the same as Yawheh and explains references to El Elyon as just a different name for the same god.
C. The borrowed ideas
1. The Enuma Elish (2000 b.c.), The babylonian creation story is all contained in Genesis. The firmament in the sky, polytheistic creation, the water, the serpent, the earth is formless and void, the order of creation of the light, then the sun and moon, the firmament and dry land are all the same.
2. Animal sacrifice is how pagans and Abraham communed with god, even sharing the meat with their god, Abraham was even willing to participate in human sacrifice with his son.
The Problem of a Historical Jesus (Why we don’t know the actual historical Jesus)
I. No contemporary historical evidence
A. No historian alive during Jesus day wrote about Jesus despite ample opportunity
1. The kings coming to his birth
2. Herod’s slaughter of baby boys
3. The overthrowing of money changers
4. Jesus triumphant entry into Jerusalem where he is declared king by the whole town.
5. Darkness covering the whole earth for hours on Jesus’ Death
6. The earthquakes at Jesus’ death
7. The rending of the temple veil at Jesus’ Death
8. The resurrection of Jesus that was seen by 500 witnesses.
9. The resurrection of dead holy men who were ‘seen by many.’
10. Not one single contemporary reference to any of these or any other event in Jesus’ life.
B. Living Roman satirists who made fun of Jewish messiahs had nothing to say about Jesus
II. The Gospels are contradicting, late hearsay accounts
A. Mark, the earliest gospel, was written at least after 70 A.D. (referencing fall of temple) by a non-eyewitness, and makes numerous cultural and geographical errors that a Jewish writer would not have made such as locations of rivers, cultural customs regarding divorce, locations of towns or Jesus quoting from the greek Septuagint etc. (see geographical and historical errors in the bible.)
B. The other gospels all copied from Mark. Luke and Matthew contain over 70% of Mark and mainly make changes in attempts to fix blatant errors made in Mark and to correct Mark’s poor grammar.The writer of Luke even reveals to us in Luke 1:2 that he was not an eyewitness, but that the story has been passed down to him.
C. All contradict in nearly every way (see contradictions in the bible)
1. What year was Jesus born (Herod or Caesar’s tax?)
2. His genealogy
3. The day he was crucified and his final words
4. The resurrection account
D. There are over 40 gospel accounts, the earliest being written at least later than 70 A.D., not just the four in the bible.
1. Four where chosen by the church father Iraeneus because he believed the earth was founded on four pillars and so too, should the gospels be founded by only four accounts.
2. Iraenus also revealed the names of the Gospels in the late second century, without any reason to assume they where the authentic authors – no one knows who actually wrote them!
3. John was initially considered heretical by the early church because of its variation from the synoptic but was overwhelmingly popular amongst Christians and so was included.
E. What is more likely – That the natural order of the universe was indeed suspended in our favor and recorded by second hand witnesses with conflicting details, or that they were simply lying?
III. Paul, Peter and other NT writers did not seem to know anything about the historical Jesus.
A. Never wrote about any of the events taking place in the gospel
1. The virgin birth
2. His miracles
3. His baptism
4. Never references or even acknowledges Jesus’ ethical teachings on earth
B. The apostolic writers only wrote about the death, burial and resurrection – and never even placed them geographically.
C They never referenced his teachings on earth or his actions in the gospels, even when it would have clarified doctrinal issues they were debating in their writings such as divorce, eating unclean meat etc… If they knew about them, why not? Instead, the gospels appear to have been written to agree with the apostle’s teachings and arguments after the fact, not the other way around.
IV. The early church did not seem to know anything about a historical Jesus.
A. Huge amounts of disagreement over Jesus in the first hundred years
1. Some churches didn’t even believe he had a physical body, prompting Paul to write about that very issue.
2. There was an enormous debate between all the major early churches as to whether Jesus was divine or not, this was settled at the council of Nicea by the Roman Emperor Constantine.
2. No early church fathers referenced Jesus’ own words or teachings as recorded in the gospels to settle theological disputes.
V. Proving Jesus’ Claims
A. We are talking about a man who is claimed to be divine and to be the creator of the entire universe! This is quite the claim, what if I told you that I was really a time-traveler… what sort of evidence would you need to believe such a claim? Would you settle for me saying that "you can’t prove that I am not a time-traveler? Yet time travel is not as bold as the claim of divinity that people believe Jesus made.
B. “What about eyewitnesses?” the Christian may ask. Why would people follow him and report his miracles if they didn’t actually see them take place?
1. Today there are Hindu Magi and Gurus in India that have been reported by witnesses to be able to perform the same types of miracles that Jesus performed during his supposed time on earth. Why do we not accept those eyewitness / first hand accounts today such as Sathya Sai Baba, who has more than a million followers and thousands of eyewitness accounts of his purported miracles including a virgin birth.
2. Why is there no contemporary record of the 500 “brothers” (the witnesses to Christs’ ressurection.) Why is Paul the only one that thought it was worth writing about an event in which Christ proved his resurrection to a large number of people? What if I told you that 500 people saw me walking on water – would me just telling you that be sufficient evidence?
3. Plethora of “savior gods” that have same attributes and miracles attributed to them as those that are attributed to Jesus that we do not accept as true.
C. Another common christian objection is “Why would early christians be willing to be martyred if they hadn’t actually seen his ressurection and known without a doubt that he was actually god?”
1. The answer to this is to consider modern cults. Why would 39 members of the cult “Heaven’s Gate” be willing to commit suicide believing that the act would grant them celestial passage on a space ship that was following Haley’s Comet? The death cult bought a telescope to observe the spacecraft that their leader promised them would be there, and when the telescope revealed no such thing – they returned it angrily insisting that the telescope was broken instead of listening to reason and realizing they had believed a complete myth. They killed themselves in March of 1997.
2. What about Jim Jones, or david koresh, or charles manson? Does the commited insanity of their followers speak to the truth of their teachings as well?
The Problem of the Bible (How the bible is full of errors in nearly every way possible.)
I. Which Bible?
A. Over 450 English versions of the bible
B. All are translated using different methods and from entirely different manuscripts
C. Thousands of manuscripts disagreeing with each other wildly in what verses and even books they contain, and how those verses read.
D. Different translations teach entirely different things in places, some often leaving out entire chapters and verses or containing footnotes warning of possible error due to uncertainty about the reliability of the numerous manuscripts.
II. Availability – current estimate is that 2,251 languages, representing 193 million people, lack a Bible translation
III. Historical and Geographical errors in the Bible
A. River Gihon could not possibly flow from Mesopotamia and encompass Ethiopia (Gen 2:13)
B. The name Babel does not come from the Hebrew word ‘balbal’ or ‘confuse’ but from the babylonian ‘babili’ or ‘gate of God’ which is a translation of the original Sumerian name Ka-dimirra. (Gen 11:9)
C. Ur was not a Chaldean city until 1000 years after Abraham (Gen 11:28, 15:7)
D. Abraham pursued enemies to ‘Dan’ (Gen 14:14). That name was not used geographically until after the conquest (Judge 18:29)
E. Gen 36:31, telling of Jacob and Esau, lists kings of Edom "before there reigned any king over the children of Israel." This must have been written hundreds of years later, after Israel had kings.
F. Joseph tells Pharaoh he comes from the "land of the Hebrews" (Gen 40:15). There was no such land until after the conquest under Joshua.
G. The Egyptian princess names the baby she finds "Moses" because she "drew him out" of the water (Heb meshethi). Why would she make a pun in Hebrew (Ex 2:10)?
H. No Egyptian record exists mentioning Moses or his devastation of Egypt, nor is there any evidence of a mass exodus or existence of a Jewish culture in Egypt.
I. Moses refers to "Palestine" (Ex 15:14). No such name was in use then.
J. Law of Moses is the "statutes of God and his laws" (Ex 18:26), but it closely mirrors the Code of Hammurabi, which was penned 1800 BC, hundreds of years before Moses.
K. Priests are mentioned at Ex 19:22-24, but they are not provided for until Ex 28:1.
L. Moses mentions Rabbath, where Og’s bedstead is located (Deut3:11). Moses could not have any knowledge of Rabbath,which was not captured by the Hebrews until David’s time,500 years later (2 Sam 12:26).
M. Jericho and Ai (Josh 8) were both ancient ruins at the time of the conquest of Canaan, according to archaeologists. Jericho’s walls were destroyed centuries before Joshua.
N. Kings are referred to at Deut 17:17-19, before Israel had kings.
O. The Wilderness is viewed as history at Num 15:32, showing that Numbers was written later.
P. The Sabbath law was unknown when the man gathered sticks at Num 15:32-34.
Q. Book of Joshua refers to Book of Jasher in the past, mentioned at 2 Sam 1:18, therefore Joshua must be post-David.
R. Captivity is mentioned at Judg 18:30, making it post-Exile.
S. David took Goliath’s head to Jerusalem (1 Sam 17:54). But Jerusalem was not captured until 7 years after David became king (2 Sam 5).
T. David paid 600 shekels of gold for the threshing floor (1 Chron21:22-25). But shekels of gold were not yet used in business transactions (this is the only use of the term in the OT).
U. Psalm 18:6 mentions the temple, thus cannot be by David.
V. Defeat of Sennacherib did not happen at Jerusalem, but at Pelusium, near Egypt, and Jews were not involved, contrary to 2 Kings 19.
W. Ninevah was so large it took three days to cross, i.e. about 60 miles (Jonah 3:3-4). Yet it had only 120,000 inhabitants, making a population density of of about 42 people per square
mile for a city.
X. Daniel’s account of Nebuchadnezzar and Belshazzar is historically inaccurate; Nebuchadnezzar was never mad. Belshazzar, whom he says was king, was never king, but only regent. Belshazzar was not the son of Nebuchadnezzar, but of Nabo-nidus. Babylon was not conquered by Darius the Mede, but by Cyrus the Great, in 539 BC (Dan 5:31). Darius the Mede is unknown to history.
Y. Chronology of the empires of the Medes and Persians is historically incorrect in Isa 13:17, 21:2, Jer 51:11, 28
Z. The book of Esther (and all the characters in the Book of Esther except Ahasuerus [= Xerxes]) is unknown to history, even though it claims that its events are "written in the chronicles of the kings of Media and Persia" (Est 10:2). The Book of Esther is not quoted by any pre-Christian writer, nor mentioned in the NT, nor quoted by early Christian fathers.
A1. Mordecai became prime minister to Xerxes (Ahasuerus), who reigned 485-465 BC. But Mordecai had come to Babylon in 596 BC with Jehoiachin (Esther 2:5-6).
B1. The office of "High priest" of Mark 2:26 did not exist in David’s day.
C1. None of the Gospels are mentioned by early Christians, e.g. Paul, Pope Clement I (97 AD), Justin Martyr (140 AD). The first mention of any Gospel is by Irenaeus (185 AD).
D1. There is no mountain from which one can see all the kingdoms of the world (Matt 4:8, Luke 4:5).
E1. Jesus as a historical figure is not mentioned by any contemporary non-Christian writers.
F1. Matt 2:1 says Jesus was born in the reign of Herod, who died 4 BC. Luke 2:2 says he was born during Quirinus’ governorship of Syria, which began 6 AD.
G1. Thieves were never punished by crucifixion (Matt 27:38, 44).
H1. No crucifixion would have been performed on the eve of Passover.
I1. There is no contemporary historical confirmation of darkness covering the earth at the crucifixion (Matt 27:35, Luke 23:44).
J1. There is no contemporary historical confirmation of the slaughter of the innocents by Herod (Matt 2:16-18). Josephus, whose history contains much criticism of Herod, does not mention it.
K1.There is no contemporary historical confirmation of the graves opening and the dead appearing to many at the crucifixion (Matt 27:52-53).
L1. in Mark 7, Jesus quotes the septuigant while arguing with the pharisees, in a portion of the old testament (Isaiah 29:13) that reads drastically differently from the Hebrew text. A Palestinian reading from a Greek text that contradicts the Hebrew to orthodox Jews is unusual to say the least.
M1. In Mark 10:12 Jesus tells Palestinian listeners that a wife who puts away her husband commits adultery, this would have been meaningless to Palestinian listeners where only men could divorce.
N1. In Mark 5:13 Jesus casts out devils and forces them into 2,000 swine who then run down into the sea and are drowned, this is said to have occured in Garasenes – 31 miles from the sea. In Matthew, which was written later, this is changed to Gadara which is much more feasible.
O1. The Tigris and Euphrates are reported in Genesis before and after the flood, apparently unaffected by the massive destruction.
P1. The use of the Tigris and Euphrates by Egyptian civilization pre and post-flood.
IV. Scientific Inaccuracy of the Bible
A. Earth is about 6000 years old, as calculated from the genealogies in Gen and Luke 3. (see the problem of a young earth later in the outline)
B. Birds were created before land animals (Gen 1:20, 24). – Fossil record shows exact opposite
C. Earth has four corners, and floats on water (Isa 11:12, Ps 24:2, 136:6, Rev 7:1).
D. Earth is a circular disk (Isa 40:22).
E. Earth is flat (these verses were used for centuries by the church to prove this: Ps 93:1, Jer 10:13, Dan 4:10-11, Zech 9:10, Matt 4:8, Rev 1:7)
F. Earth does not move (Ps 93:1, 96:10, 104:5, 1 Chr 16:30).
G. Death or illness is caused by sin (Gen 2:17, Lev 26:16, 21, 25, Deut 7:15, 28:21, 27, James 1:15).
H. God himself believes that a house or clothes can have leprosy and he details the remedy. Lev 13, 14.
I. Seed must "die" before it grows (John 12:24, 1 Cor 15:36).
J. Snakes eat dust (Gen 3:14, Isa 65:25).
K. Every beast shall fear man (Gen 9:2).
L. The ostrich abandons her eggs (Job 39:13-16).
M. A river divides into four rivers and they flow in different directions (Gen 2:10).
N. There was no rainbow before Noah’s time (Gen 9:11-17).
O. Thunder is God’s voice (Ps 77:18).
P. Earthquakes are caused by God’s anger (Job 9:5, Ps 18:7, 77:18, 97:4, Isa 2:19, 24:20, 29:6, Jer 10:10, Ezek 38:20, Nah 1:5). Or by his voice (Heb 12:26). Or by Lucifer (Isa 14:16).
Q. Earthquakes can occur in heaven (Heb 12:26).
R. Rainwater does not return to the sky (Isa 55:10).
S. Blood is "life" (Deut 12:23). Breath is "life" (Gen 2:7).
T. Moon will turn to blood (Acts 2:20).
U. The moon has a light of its own (Isa 13:10, Matt 24:29).
V. The stars can be made to fall (Matt 24:29, Mark 13:25).
W. The bat is a bird (Lev 11:13,19, Deut 14:11, 18).
X. The whale is a fish (Jonah 1:17, Matt 12:40).
Y. Whales were created before insects (Gen 1:21-24).
Z. Jonah is able to survive three days and nights in the belly of the fish without oxygen and without being digested (Jonah1:17, 2:10).
A1. The hare chews the cud (Lev 11:5-6).
B1. Some fowl and insects have four legs (Lev 11:20-23).
C1. Levi existed as a person in the loins of his great-grandfather (Heb 7:9-10).
D1. Cattle will produce striped offspring if they see striped poles when breeding (Gen 30:37-41).
E1. Bees will build a hive in a dead carcass (Judg 14:8).
F1. Salt can lose its saltiness (Matt 5:13, Mark 9:50, Luke 14:34).
G1. Slugs / Snails melt as they move (Ps 58:8)
G2. Noah’s Flood
1. Why the ordered fossil layering of plant and animals? The common answer is that simpler lifeforms could not flee the floodwater and so are on the bottom. How did plants move away from the flood to end up with fossilized forests on top of other fossilized forests? Why do we not find one lame human that couldn’t flee? Why didn’t dinosaurs make it to the hills?
2. Where did all of the water come from and where did it go? (Conservative estimates need about 3x the amount of water in the entire earth, it’s polar caps and it’s atmosphere to cover the mountains like the bible says.)
3. The ancient egyptians were already keeping records for hundreds of years before the flood and did not seem to notice that their entire civilization was wiped out, or that a flood occurred at all.
4. The Djoser Step Pyramid and the Great Pyramid of Cheops were both built hundreds of years before the flood with no evidence of water damage.
5. If the flood created fossils, and two of every kind were on the ark, then that means that we have to have two of each “kind” of fossil we have ever found. What about the special diets and environmental needs of some of these animals on the ark? How did they have the manpower to feed these animals, how did the food to keep these animals alive stay fresh?
6. How did the ark stay afloat? The longest wooden ships today are around 350 feet and are banded with iron clasps and must be continuously pumped due to leaking in wood. The ark was 450 feet long.
7. Why are the vast majority of fossils found in riverbeds and other aquatic areas if the whole earth including dry land was covered in water? Shouldn’t fossils just be everywhere?
8. Distribution of animals – If Noah’s ark landed in Turkey, why would marsupials go back to Australia where we find the majority of marsupial fossils that were deposited by the flood. Why didn’t marsupial disperse out from turkey? Evolution’s predictions regarding marsupials is exactly what we actually find buried in the strata- the origin of marsupials in North America, migrating through Antartica and flourishing in Australia.
V. Contradictions and internal errors in the Bible
GE 1:14 God created lights in the firmament of heaven to divide the day from the night
GE 1:4 God had already made this division earlier
GE 1:11-12, 26-27 Trees were created before man was created.
GE 2:4-9 Man was created before trees were created.
GE 1:20-21, 26-27 Birds were created before man was created.
GE 2:7, 19 Man was created before birds were created.
GE 1:24-27 Animals were created before man was created.
GE 2:7, 19 Man was created before animals were created.
GE 1:26-27 Man and woman were created at the same time.
GE 2:7, 21-22 Man was created first, woman sometime later.
GE 2:4, 4:26, 12:8, 22:14-16, 26:25 God was already known as "the Lord" (Jahveh or Jehovah) much earlier than the time of Moses.
EX 6:2-3 God was first known as "the Lord" (Jahveh or Jehovah) at the time of the Egyptian Bondage, during the life of Moses.
GE 2:5 There is no plant or shrubbery on the earth after god created it, before the fall because there was no one to "work the ground."
GE 1:11-12 The land produced plants, trees and fruit on it’s own without a worker.
GE 3:17-18 Having to work the ground for food was a punishment for the fall
GE 4:15, DT 32:19-27, IS 34:8 God is a vengeful god.
EX 15:3, IS 42:13, HE 12:29 God is a warrior. God is a consuming fire.
EX 20:5, 34:14, DT 4:24, 5:9, 6:15, 29:20, 32:21 God is a jealous god.
LE 26:7-8, NU 31:17-18, DT 20:16-17, JS 10:40, JG 14:19, EZ 9:5-7 The Spirit of God is (sometimes) murder and killing.
NU 25:3-4, DT 6:15, 9:7-8, 29:20, 32:21, PS 7:11, 78:49, JE 4:8, 17:4, 32:30-31, ZP 2:2 God is angry. His anger is sometimes fierce.
2CO 13:11, 14, 1JN 4:8, 16 God is love.
GA 5:22-23 The fruit of the Spirit of God is love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, faithfulness, gentleness and self-control.
GE 6:4 There were Nephilim (giants) before the Flood.
GE 7:21 All creatures other than Noah and his clan were annihilated by the Flood.
NU 13:33 There were Nephilim after the Flood.
GE 6:6. EX 32:14, NU 14:20, 1SA 15:35, 2SA 24:16 God does change his mind.
NU 23:19-20, 1SA 15:29, JA 1:17 God does not change his mind.
GE 7:24 The flood lasts 150 days
GE 7:17 40 days
GE 8:5 Ten Months
GE 11:7-9 God sows discord.
PR 6:16-19 God hates anyone who sows discord.
GE 11:9 At Babel, the Lord confused the language of the whole world.
1CO 14:33 Paul says that God is not the author of confusion.
GE 11:12 Arpachshad [Arphaxad] was the father of Shelah.
LK 3:35-36 Cainan was the father of Shelah. Arpachshad was the grandfather of Shelah.
GE 11:26 Terah was 70 years old when his son Abram was born.
GE 11:32 Terah was 205 years old when he died (making Abram 135 at the time).
GE 12:4, AC 7:4 Abram was 75 when he left Haran. This was after Terah died. Thus, Terah could have been no more than 145 when he died; or Abram was only 75 years old after he had lived 135 years.
GE 12:7, 17:1, 18:1, 26:2, 32:30, EX 3:16, 6:2-3, 24:9-11, 33:11, NU 12:7-8, 14:14, JB 42:5, AM 7:7-8, 9:1 God is seen.
EX 33:20, JN 1:18, 1JN 4:12 God is not seen. No one can see God’s face and live. No one has ever seen him.
GE 10:5, 20, 31 There were many languages before the Tower of Babel.
GE 11:1 There was only one language before the Tower of Babel.
GE 15:9, EX 20:24, 29:10-42, LE 1:1-7:38, NU 28:1-29:40, God details sacrificial offerings.
JE 7:21-22 God says he did no such thing.
GE 15:13, ACT 7:6 The sojourn in Egypt lasted 400 years
EX 12:40 430 years
EX 6:16-20 Four generations of Levi (Levi, Kohath, Amram, Moses… Kohath was born before going to Egypt (Gen 46:8-11) and died at age 133 (Ex 6:18). Amram died at age 137 (Ex 6:20). Moses was 80 at start of the exodus (Ex 7:7). Even if Kohath were born in the first year of the sojourn and each father sired the next generation in the year of his death, the sojourn could not have been over 350 years: Kohath 133 + Amram 137 + Moses 80. And Jochebed must have been much older than herhusband; to the extent she was not, the sojourn must havebeen even shorter.
GE 16:15, 21:1-3, GA 4:22 Abraham had two sons, Ishmael and Isaac.
HE 11:17 Abraham had only one son.
GE 17:1, 35:11, 1CH 29:11-12, LK 1:37 God is omnipotent. Nothing is impossible with (or for) God.
JG 1:19 Although God was with Judah, together they could not defeat the plainsmen because the latter had iron chariots.
GE 21:14-16 Hagar casts Ishmael under a bush
GE 17:23-26, 21:5 Hagar was already fourteen years old
GE 22:1-12, DT 8:2 God tempts (tests) Abraham and Moses.
JG 2:22 God himself says that he does test (tempt).
1CO 10:13 Paul says that God controls the extent of our temptations.
JA 1:13 God tests (tempts) no one.
GE 26:35 Esau’s wife Bashemath was the daughter of Elon the Hittite
GE 36:2-3 Bashemath was the daughter of Ishmael and sister of Nabajoth his wife Adah is the daughter of Elon the Hittite
GE 28:9 Esau’s wife Mahalath is the daughter of Ishmael and sister of Nabajoth
GE 32:28-30 God changed Jacobs name at Peniel crossing the Jabbok
GE 35:9-10 He changed it at padanaram
GE 35:10 God says Jacob is to be called Jacob no longer; henceforth his name is Israel.
GE 46:2 At a later time, God himself uses the name Jacob.
GE 36:11 The sons of Eliphaz were Teman, Omar, Zepho, Gatam, and Kenaz.
GE 36:15-16 Teman, Omar, Zepho, Kenaz.
1CH 1:35-36 Teman, Omar, Zephi, Gatam, Kenaz, Timna, and Amalek.
GE 37:36 The Midianites of northern arabia sold Jospeh into slavery
GE 37:28, 39:1 It was the Ishmaelites of the syrian desert
GE 45:4 It was his brothers
GE 46:27, Ex 1:5 Seventy of Jacob’s family went to Egypt.
ACTS 7:14 Seventy-five
GE 49:2-28 The fathers of the twelve tribes of Israel are: Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Zebulun, Issachar, Dan, Gad, Asher, Naphtali, Joseph, and Benjamin.
RE 7:4-8 (Leaves out the tribe of Dan, but adds Manasseh.)
GE 50:13 Jacob was buried in a cave at Machpelah bought from Ephron the Hittite.
AC 7:15-16 He was buried in the sepulchre at Shechem, bought from the sons of Hamor.
EX 3:1 Jethro was the father-in-law of Moses.
NU 10:29, JG 4:11 (KJV) Hobab was the father-in-law of Moses.
EX 9:3-6 God destroys all the cattle (including horses) belonging to the Egyptians.
EX 9:9-11 The people and the cattle are afflicted with boils.
EX 12:12, 29 All the first-born of the cattle of the Egyptians are destroyed.
EX 14:9 After having all their cattle destroyed, then afflicted with boils, and then their first-born cattle destroyed, the Egyptians pursue Moses on horseback.
EX 12:37, NU 1:45-46 The number of men of military age who take part in the Exodus is given as more than 600,000. Allowing for women, children, and older men would probably mean that a total of about 2,000,000 Israelites left Egypt.
1KI 20:15 All the Israelites, including children, number only 7000 at a later time.
EX 18:1-27 Jethro’s idea to appoint judges
DEUT 1:9-17 It was Moses’ idea
EX 20:1-17 God gave the law directly to Moses (without using an intermediary).
GA 3:19 The law was ordained through angels by a mediator (an intermediary).
EX 20:1-17 The Ten Commandments as we know them today
Deut 5:6-21 A slightly different version of the Ten Commandments
EX 34:11-18 A completely different version about sacrificial law specifically identified as the ten commandments inscribed on stone tablets.
EX 20:4 God prohibits the making of any graven images whatsoever.
EX 25:18 God enjoins the making of two graven images.
EX 20:5, 34:7, NU 14:18, DT 5:9, IS 14:21-22 Children are to suffer for their parent’s sins.
DT 24:16, EZ 18:19-20 Children are not to suffer for their parent’s sins.
EX 20:8-11, 31:15-17, 35:1-3 No work is to be done on the Sabbath, not even lighting a fire. The commandment is permanent, and death is required for infractions regarding the Sabbath.
MK 2:27-28 Jesus says that the Sabbath was made for man, not man for the Sabbath (after his disciples were criticized for breaking the Sabbath).
RO 14:5, CN 2:14-16 Paul says the Sabbath commandment was temporary, and to decide for yourself regarding its observance.
EX 20:12, DT 5:16, MT 15:4, 19:19, MK 7:10, 10:19, LK 18:20 Honor your father and your mother is one of the ten commandments. It is reinforced by Jesus.
MT 10:35-37, LK 12:51-53, 14:26 Jesus says that he has come to divide families; that a man’s foes will be those of his own household; that you must hate your father, mother, wife, children, brothers, sisters, and even your own life to be a disciple.
EX 20:14 God prohibits adultery.
HO 1:2 God instructs Hosea to "take a wife of harlotry."
EX 21:23-25, LE 24:20, DT 19:21 A life for a life, an eye for an eye, etc.
MT 5:38-44, LK 6:27-29 Turn the other cheek. Love your enemies.
EX 23:7 God prohibits the killing of the innocent.
NU 31:17-18, DT 7:2, JS 6:21-27, 7:19-26, 8:22-25, 10:20, 40, 11:8-15, 20, JG 11:30-39, 21:10-12, 1SA 15:3 God orders or approves the complete extermination of groups of people which include innocent women and/or children.
EX 34:6, DT 7:9-10, TS 1:2 God is faithful and truthful. He does not lie.
1KI 22:21-23 God condones a spirit of deception.
LE 3:17 God himself prohibits forever the eating of blood and fat.
MT 15:11, CN 2:20-22 Jesus and Paul say that such rules don’t matter–they are only human injunctions.
NU 25:9 24,000 died in the plague.
1CO 10:8 23,000 died in the plague.
NU28:11 Offering for the new month is two bullocks, one ram, seven lambs
Ezek 46:6 One bullock, one ram, six lambs
NU 30:2 God enjoins the making of vows (oaths).
MT 5:33-37 Jesus forbids doing so, saying that they arise from evil (or the Devil).
NU 33:38 Aaron died on Mt. Hor.
DT 10:6 Aaron died in Mosera.
NU 33:41-42 After Aaron’s death, the Israelites journeyed from Mt. Hor, to Zalmonah, to Punon,
DT 10:6-7 It was from Mosera, to Gudgodah, to Jotbath.
DT 24:1-5 A man can divorce his wife simply because she displeases him and both he and his wife can remarry.
MK 10:2-12 Divorce is wrong, and to remarry is to commit adultery.
JS 4:9 Joshua’s twelve stones ended up in the middle of the Jordan
JS 4:20 They ended up in Gilgal
JS 10:38-40 Joshua himself captured Debir.
JG 1:11-15 It was Othniel, who thereby obtained the hand of Caleb’s daughter, Achsah.
JS 15:21-32 Contradicts itself: it says there are 29 cities on the list, which actually contains 36.
JG 4:21 Sisera was sleeping when Jael killed him.
JG 5:25-27 Sisera was standing.
1SA 15:7-8, 20 The Amalekites are utterly destroyed.
1SA 27:8-9 They are utterly destroyed (again?).
1SA 30:1, 17-18 They raid Ziklag and David smites them (again?).
1SA 16:10-11, 17:12 Jesse had seven sons plus David, or eight total.
1CH 2:13-15 He had seven total.
1SA 16:19-23 Saul knew David well before the latter’s encounter with Goliath.
1SA 17:55-58 Saul did not know David at the time of his encounter with Goliath and had to ask about David’s identity.
1SA 17:50 David killed Goliath.
2SA 21:19 Elhanan killed Goliath. (Note: Some translations insert the words "the brother of" before Elhanan. These are an addition to the earliest manuscripts in an apparent attempt to rectify this inconsistency.)
1SA 21:1-6 Ahimalech was high priest when David ate the bread.
MK 2:26 Abiathar was high priest at the time.
1SA 28:6 Saul inquired of the Lord, but received no answer.
1CH 10:13-14 Saul died for not inquiring of the Lord.
2SA 6:23 Michal was childless.
2SA 21:8 (KJV) She had five sons.
2SA 10:18 David killed 700 charioteers among the Ammonites
1 CH 19:18 David killed 7,000 charioteers
2SA 24:1 The Lord inspired David to take the census.
1CH 21:1 Satan inspired the census.
2SA 24:9 The census count was: Israel 800,000 and Judah 500,000.
1CH 21:5 The census count was: Israel 1,100,000 and Judah 470,000.
2SA 24:10-17 David sinned in taking the census.
1KI 15:5 David’s only sin (ever) was in regard to another matter.
1KI 4:26 Solomon had 40,000 horses (or stalls for horses).
2CH 9:25 He had 4,000 horses (or stalls for horses).
1KI 5:16 Solomon had 3,300 supervisors.
2CH 2:2 He had 3,600 supervisors.
1KI 8:5 The number of sheep and oxen sacrificed at Solomon’s Temple dedication was too many to be counted
1KI 8:63 Exact count of sheep and oxen sacrificed at Solomon’s Temple dedication
1KI 7:15-22 The two pillars were 18 cubits high.
2CH 3:15-17 They were 35 cubits high.
1KI 7:26 Solomon’s "molten sea" held 2000 "baths" (1 bath = about 8 gallons).
2CH 4:5 It held 3000 "baths."
1KI 9:28 420 talents of gold were brought back from Ophir.
2CH 8:18 450 talents of gold were brought back from Ophir.
1KI 15:14 Asa did not remove the high places.
2CH 14:2-3 He did remove them.
1KI 16:6-8 Baasha died in the 26th year of King Asa’s reign.
2CH 16:1 Baasha built a city in the 36th year of King Asa’s reign.
1KI 16:23 Omri became king in the thirty-first year of Asa’s reign and he reigned for a total of twelve years.
1KI 16:28-29 Omri died, and his son Ahab became king in the thirty- eighth year of Asa’s reign. (Note: Thirty-one through thirty-eight equals a reign of seven or eight years.)
1KI 22:23, 2CH 18:22, 2TH 2:11 God himself causes a lying spirit.
PR 12:22 God abhors lying lips and delights in honesty.
1KI 22:42-43 Jehoshaphat did not remove the high places.
2CH 17:5-6 He did remove them.
2KI 2:11 Elijah went up to heaven.
2CO 12:2-4 An unnamed man, known to Paul, went up to heaven and came back.
HE 11:5 Enoch was translated to heaven.
JN 3:13 Only the Son of Man (Jesus) has ever ascended to heaven.
2KI 4:32-37 A dead child is raised (well before the time of Jesus).
MT 9:18-25, JN 11:38-44 Two dead persons are raised (by Jesus himself).
AC 26:23 Jesus was the first to rise from the dead.
2KI 8:25-26 Ahaziah was 22 years old when he began his reign.
2CH 22:2 He was 42 when he began his reign.
[Note: Some translations use "twenty-two" here in an attempt to rectify this discrepancy. The Hebrew is clear, however, that 2CH 22:2 is 42. The Hebrew words involved are Strong's H705 and H8147, "forty" and "two," respectively.]
2KI 9:27 Jehu shot Ahaziah near Ibleam. Ahaziah fled to Meggido and died there.
2CH 22:9 Ahaziah was found hiding in Samaria, brought to Jehu, and put to death.
2KI 16:5 The King of Syria and the son of the King of Israel did not conquer Ahaz.
2CH 28:5-6 They did conquer Ahaz.
2KI 23:29-30 Josiah died at Megiddo
2 CH 35:24 Josiah died at Jerusalem
2KI 24:8 Jehoiachin (Jehoiakim) was eighteen years old when he began to reign.
2CH 36:9 He was eight.
(Note: This discrepancy has been "corrected" in some versions.
2KI 24:17 Jehoiachin (Jehoaikim) was succeeded by his uncle.
2CH 36:10 He was succeeded by his brother.
2KI 25:8 Nebuzaradan arrived in Jerusalem on the seventh day
JER 52:12 He arrived on the tenth day
1CH 3:11-13 The lineage is: Joram, Ahaziah, Joash, Amaziah, Azariah, Jotham.
MT 1:8-9 It is: Joram, Uzziah, Jotham, etc.
1CH 3:19 Pedaiah was the father of Zerubbabel.
ER 3:2 Shealtiel was the father of Zerubbabel.
2CH 19:7, AC 10:34, RO 2:11 There is no injustice or partiality with the Lord.
RO 9:15-18 God has mercy on (and hardens the hearts of) whom he pleases.
ER 2:3-64 (Gives the whole congregation as 42,360 while the actual sum of the numbers is about 30,000.)
PS 58:10-11 The righteous shall rejoice when he sees vengeance.
PR 24:16-18 Do not rejoice when your enemy falls or stumbles.
PS 78:69, EC 1:4, 3:14 The earth was established forever.
PS 102:25-26, MT 24:35, MK 13:31, LK 21:33, HE 1:10-11, 2PE 3:10 The earth will someday perish.
IS 2:4 Swords will be beaten into plowshares in the last days
JOEL 3:10 Plowshares will be beaten into swords in the last days
JE 34:4-5 Zedekiah was to die in peace.
JE 52:10-11 Instead, Zedekaih’s sons are slain before his eyes, his eyes are then put out, he is bound in fetters, taken to Babylon and left in prison to die.
ZE 11:12-13 Mentions "thirty pieces" and could possibly be thought to be connected with the Potter’s Field prophesy referred to in Matthew.
MT 27:9 Jeremiah is given as the source of the prophesy regarding the purchase of the Potter’s Field. (Note: There is no such prophesy in Jeremiah.)
MT 1:6-7 The lineage of Jesus is traced through David’s son, Solomon.
LK 3:23-31 It is traced through David’s son, Nathan.
(Note: Some apologists assert that Luke traces the lineage through Mary. That this is untrue is obvious from the context since Luke and Matthew both clearly state that Joseph was Jesus’ father.)
MT 1:8, 2KI 8:25, 15:32 Jotham is the grandson of Joram
2CH 3:11-13 Lists three three more generations between Jotham and Joram
MT 1:12-17 States that there were fourteen generations from the Captivity to Jesus, but only lists 13.
MT 1:16 Jacob was Joseph’s father.
LK 3:23 Heli was Joseph’s father.
MT 1:17 There were twenty-eight generations from David to Jesus.
LK 3:23-38 There were forty-three.
MT 1:18-21 The Annunciation occurred after Mary had conceived Jesus.
LK 1:26-31 It occurred before conception.
MT 2:13-16 Following the birth of Jesus, Joseph and Mary flee to Egypt, (where they stay until after Herod’s death) in order to avoid the murder of their firstborn by Herod. Herod slaughters all male infants two years old and under. (Note: John the Baptist, Jesus’ cousin, though under two is somehow spared without fleeing to Egypt.)
LK 2:22-40 Following the birth of Jesus, Joseph and Mary remain in the area of Jerusalem for the Presentation (about forty days) and then return to Nazareth without ever going to Egypt. There is no slaughter of the infants.
MT 2:23 "And he went and lived in a town called Nazareth. So was fulfilled what was said through the prophets: He will be called a Nazarene.’" (This prophecy is not found in the OT and while Jesus is often referred to as "Jesus of Nazareth", he is seldom referred to as "Jesus the Nazarene.")
MT 3:17 The heavenly voice addressed the crowd: "This is my beloved Son."
MK 1:11, LK 3:22 The voice addressed Jesus: "You are my beloved Son…."
MT 4:1-11, MK 1:12-13 Immediately following his Baptism, Jesus spent forty days in the wilderness resisting temptation by the Devil.
JN 2:1-11 Three days after the Baptism, Jesus was at the wedding in Cana.
MT 4:5-8 The Devil took Jesus to the pinnacle of the temple, then to the mountain top.
LK 4:5-9 First to the mountain top, then to the pinnacle of the temple.
MT 4:18-20, MK 1:16-18 (One story about choosing Peter as a disciple.)
LK 5:2-11 (A different story.)
JN 1:35-42 (Still another story.)
MT 5:32 Divorce, except on the grounds of unchastity, is wrong.
MK 10:11-12 Divorce on any grounds is wrong.
MT 6:13 Jesus’ prayer implies that God might lead us into temptation.
JA 1:13 God tempts no one.
MT 7:21, LK 10:36-37, RO 2:6, 13, JA 2:24 We are justified by works, not by faith.
JN 3:16, RO 3:20-26, EP 2:8-9, GA 2:16 We are justified by faith, not by works.
MT 8:5-12 The centurion himself approaches Jesus to ask to heal his servant.
LK 7:2-10 The centurion sends elders to do the asking.
MT 8:28-33 Two demoniacs are healed in the Gadarene swine incident.
MK 5:2-16, LK 8:26-36 One demoniac is healed in this incident.
MT 9:18 The ruler’s daughter was already dead when Jesus raised her.
LK 8:42 She was dying, but not dead.
MT 10:2, MK 3:16-19 The twelve apostles (disciples) were: Simon (Peter), Andrew his brother, James the son of Zebedee, John his brother, Philip, Bartholemew, Thomas, Matthew the tax collector, James the son of Alphaeus, Thaddaeus (Labbaeus), Simon, and Judas Iscariot.
LK 6:13-16 The above except that Thaddaeus (Labbaeus) is excluded, and Judas the son of James is added (and Judas Iscariot remains).
AC 1:13, 26 Same as MT and MK except that, like LK Thaddaeus (Labbaeus) is excluded, Judas the son of James is included, and Mathias is chosen by the others to replace Judas Iscariot.
MT 10:10 Do not take sandals (shoes) or staves.
MK 6:8-9 Take sandals (shoes) and staves.
AC 16:31 He that believes on the Lord Jesus will be saved.
AC 2:21 He that calls upon the name of the Lord will be saved.
RO 10:9 He who confesses with his mouth "Jesus is Lord" and believes in his heart that God raised him from the dead will be saved.
MT 10:22, 24:13, MK 13:13 He that endures to the end will be saved.
MK 16:16 He that believes and is baptized will be saved.
JN 3:5 Only he that is born of water and Spirit will be saved.
MT 12:5 Jesus says that the law (OT) states that the priests profane the Sabbath but are blameless. (No such statement is found in the OT.)
MT 12:30 Jesus says that those who are not with him are against him.
MK 9:40 Jesus says that those who are not against him are for him.
MT 5:37, 15:19, MK 7:22, JN 8:14, 44, 14:6, 18:37 Jesus says that you should answer a plain "yes" or "no," that his purpose is to bear witness to the truth, and that his testimony is true. He equates lying with evil.
JN 7:2-10 Jesus tells his brothers that he is not going to Jerusalem for the Feast of the Tabernacles, then later goes secretly by himself.
MT 16:6, 11 Beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees.
MK 8:15 Beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and Herod.
MT 17:1-2 The Transfiguration occurs six days after Jesus foretells his suffering.
LK 9:28-29 It takes place about eight days afterwards.
MT 20:20-21 The mother of James and John asks Jesus a favor for her sons.
MK 10:35-37 They ask for themselves.
MT 20:29-34 Jesus heals two blind men on the way to Jericho.
MK 10:46-52 He heals one blind man.
MT 21:1-17 The sequence was: triumphal entry, cleansing of the temple, Bethany.
MK 11:1-19 Triumphal entry, cleansing of the temple.
LK 19:28-48 Triumphal entry, cleansing of the temple, daily teaching in the temple.
JN 12:1-18 Cleansing of the temple (early in his career), Supper with Lazarus, triumphal entry, no cleansing of the temple following the triumphal entry.
MT 21:2-6, MK 11:2-7, LK 19:30-35 The disciples follow Jesus instructions and bring him the animal (or animals, in the case of MT).
JN 12:14 Jesus finds the animal himself.
MT 21:7 Jesus rides two animals during his triumphal entry.
MK 11:7, LK 19:35, JN 12:14 Only one animal is involved.
MT 21:19-20 The fig tree withers immediately after being cursed by Jesus. The disciples notice and are amazed.
MK 11:13-14, 20-21 The disciples first notice that the tree has withered the day following.
MT 23:35 Jesus says that Zacharias (Zechariah) was the son of Barachias (Barachiah).
2CH 24:20 Zacharias was actually the son of Jehoida, the priest.
(Note: The name Barachias, or Barachiah, does not appear in the O.T.)
MT 26:6-13, MK 14:3 The anointing of Jesus takes place in Bethany at the house of Simon the leper.
LK 7:36-38 It takes place at the house of a Pharisee in Galilee.
MT 28:6-8 The women ran from the tomb "with great joy."
JN 20:1-2 Mary told Peter and the other disciple that the body had been stolen. (Would she feel "great joy" if she thought the body had been stolen?)
MT 26:8 The disciples reproach her.
MK 14:4 "Some" reproach her.
JN 12:4-5 Judas Iscariot reproaches her.
MT 26:14-25, MK 14:10-11, LK 22:3-23 Judas made his bargain with the chief priests before the meal.
JN 13:21-30 After the meal.
MT 26:26-29, MK 14:22-25 The order of the communion was: bread, then wine.
LK 22:17-20 It was: wine, then bread.
MT 26:49-50, MK 14:44-46 Jesus is betrayed by Judas with a kiss, then seized.
LK 22:47-48 Jesus anticipates Judas’ kiss. No actual kiss is mentioned.
JN 18:2-9 Jesus voluntarily steps forward to identify himself making it completely unnecessary for Judas to point him out. No kiss is mentioned.
MT 26:57, MK 14:53, LK 22:54 After his arrest Jesus is first taken to Caiphas, the high priest.
JN 18:13-24 First to Annas, the son-in-law of Caiphas, then to Caiphas.
MT 26:71-72 Peter’s second denial is to still another maid.
MK 14:69-70 (Apparently) to the same maid.
LK 22:58 To a man, not a maid.
JN 18:25 To more than one, "they."
MT 27:3-7 The chief priests bought the field.
AC 1:16-19 Judas bought the field.
MT 27:5 Judas threw down the pieces of silver, then departed.
AC 1:18 He used the coins to buy the field.
MT 27:5 Judas hanged himself.
AC 1:18 He fell headlong, burst open, and his bowels gushed out.
MT 27:11-14 Jesus answers not a single charge at his hearing before Pilate.
JN 18:33-37 Jesus answers all charges at his hearing before Pilate.
MT 27:28 Jesus is given a scarlet robe (a sign of infamy).
MK 15:17, JN 19:2 A purple robe (a sign of royalty).
MT 27:46-50, MK 15:34-37 Jesus’ last recorded words are: "My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?"
LK 23:46 "Father, into thy hands I commit my spirit."
JN 19:30 "It is finished."
MT 27:48, LK 23:36, JN 19:29 Jesus was offered vinegar to drink.
MK 15:23 It was wine and myrrh, and he did not drink it.
JN 19:29-30 Whatever it was, he did drink it.
MT 27:54 The centurion says: "Truly this was the son of God."
LK 23:47 He says: "Truly this man was innocent" (or "righteous").
MT 27:55, MK 15:40, LK 23:49 The women looked on from afar.
JN 19:25-26 They were near enough that Jesus could speak to his mother.
MT 27:62-66 A guard was placed at the tomb (the day following the burial).
MK 15:42- 16:8, LK 23:50-56, JN 19:38-42 (No guard is mentioned. This is important since rumor had it that Jesus’ body was stolen and the Resurrection feigned.)
MK 16:1-3, LK 24:1 (There could not have been a guard, as far as the women were concerned, since they were planning to enter the tomb with spices. Though the women were aware of the stone, they were obviously unaware of a guard.)
MT 28:1 The first visitors to the tomb were Mary Magdalene and the other Mary (two).
MK 16:1 Both of the above plus Salome (three).
LK 23:55 – 24:1, 24:10 Mary Magdalene, Joanna, Mary the mother of James, and "other women" (at least five).
JN 20:1 Mary Magdalene only (one).
MT 28:1 It was toward dawn when they arrived.
MK 16:2 It was after sunrise.
LK 24:1 It was at early dawn.
JN 20:1 It was still dark.
MT 28:1-2 The stone was still in place when they arrived. It was rolled away later.
MK 16:4, LK 24:2, JN 20:1 The stone had already been rolled (or taken) away.
MT 28:2 An angel arrived during an earthquake, rolled back the stone, then sat on it (outside the tomb).
MK 16:5 No earthquake, only one young man sitting inside the tomb.
LK 24:2-4 No earthquake. Two men suddenly appear standing inside the tomb.
JN 20:12 No earthquake. Two angels are sitting inside the tomb.
MT 28:8 The visitors ran to tell the disciples.
MK 16:8 They said nothing to anyone.
LK 24:9 They told the eleven and all the rest.
JN 20:10-11 The disciples returned home. Mary remained outside, weeping.
MT 28:8-9 Jesus’ first Resurrection appearance was fairly near the tomb.
LK 24:13-15 It was in the vicinity of Emmaus (seven miles from Jerusalem).
JN 20:13-14 It was right at the tomb.
MT 28:9 On his first appearance to them, Jesus lets Mary Magdalene and the other Mary hold him by his feet.
JN 20:17 On his first appearance to Mary, Jesus forbids her to touch him since he has not yet ascended to the Father.
JN 20:27 A week later, although he has not yet ascended to the Father, Jesus tells Thomas to touch him.
MT 28:7-10, MT 28:16 Although some doubted, the initial reaction of those that heard the story was one of belief since they followed the revealed instructions.
MK 16:11, LK 24:11 The initial reaction was one of disbelief. All doubted.
MT 28:1-18 The order of Resurrection appearances was: Mary Magdalene and the other Mary, then the eleven.
MK 16:9-14 It was Mary Magdalene, then two others, then the eleven.
LK 24:15-36 It was two, then Simon (Peter?), then the eleven.
JN 20:14 – 21:1 It was Mary Magdalene, then the disciples without Thomas, then the disciples with Thomas, then the eleven disciples again.
1CO 15:5-8 It was Cephas (Peter?), then the "twelve" (which twelve, Judas was dead?), then 500+ brethren (although AC 1:15 says there were only about 120), then James, then all the Apostles, then Paul.
MK 1:2 Jesus quotes a statement that allegedly appears in Isaiah. No such statement appears in Isaiah.
MK 1:14 Jesus began his ministry after the arrest of John the Baptist.
JN 3:22-24 Before the arrest of John the Baptist.
MK 1:23-24 A demon cries out that Jesus is the Holy One of God.
1JN 4:1-2 Everyone who confesses that Jesus Christ has come in the flesh is of God. (Note: This would mean that the demon is of God.)
MK 4:11-12, 11:25 Jesus says that he uses parables so that the meaning of some of his teachings will remain secret to at least some persons. He explains the meanings of the parables only to his disciples. He thanks God for hiding some things from the wise while revealing them to "babes."
JN 18:20 Jesus says that he always taught openly, never secretly.
MK 6:16 Herod was the source of the belief that John had been raised from the dead.
LK 9:7 Others were the source. Herod was perplexed by the belief.
MK 15:25 It was the third hour when Jesus was crucified.
JN 19:14-15 It was after the sixth hour since Jesus was still before Pilate and had not yet been sentenced at that time.
MK 16:1-2 The women came to the tomb to anoint the body.
JN 19:39-40 The body had already been anointed and wrapped in linen cloth.
MK 16:5, LK 24:3 The women actually entered the tomb.
JN 20:1-2, 11 They did not.
MK 16:14-19 The Ascension took place (presumably from a room) while the disciples were together seated at a table, probably in or near Jerusalem.
LK 24:50-51 It took place outdoors, after supper, at Bethany (near Jerusalem).
AC 1:9-12 It took place outdoors, after 40+ days, at Mt. Olivet.
MT 28:16-20 No mention is made of an ascension, but if it took place at all, it must have been from a mountain in Galilee since MT ends there.)
LK 22:3-23 Satan entered Judas before the supper.
JN 13:27 It was during the supper.
LK 23:55-56 The women followed Joseph to the tomb, saw how the body had been laid, then went to prepare spices with which to anoint the body.
JN 19:39-40 Joseph brought spices with him (75 or a 100 lbs.) and annointed the body (as the women should have noticed).
JN 2:11 Water is turned into wine and called ‘the first sign’
JN 2:23 Tells us that many more signs followed this first sign
JN 4:54 Tells us that he later heals a centurion’s son and that this is the ‘second sign’
JN 3:17, 8:15, 12:47 Jesus does not judge.
JN 5:22, 5:27-30, 9:39, AC 10:42, 2CO 5:10 Jesus does judge.
JN 5:22 God does not judge.
RO 2:2-5, 3:19, 2TH 1:5, 1PE 1:17 God does judge.
JN 5:31 Jesus says that if he bears witness to himself, his testimony is not true.
JN 8:14 Jesus says that even if he bears witness to himself, his testimony is true.
JN 7:38 Jesus quotes a statement that he says appears in scripture (i.e., the OT).
(No such statement is found in the OT.)
JN 13:36 Peter asks Jesus where he is going.
JN 14:5 Thomas does the same.
JN 16:5 Jesus says that none of them have asked him where he is going.
JN 20:9 Jesus quotes a statement that he says appears in scripture (meaning the OT). (No such statement is found in the OT.)
AC 9:7 Those present at Paul’s conversion heard the voice but saw no one.
AC 22:9 They saw a light but did not hear a voice.
AC 9:7 Those present at Paul’s conversion stood.
AC 26:14 They fell to the ground.
AC 9:19-28 Shortly after his conversion, Paul went to Damascus, then Jerusalem where he was introduced to the Apostles by Barnabas, and there spent some time with them (going in and out among them).
GA 1:15-20 He made the trip three years later, then saw only Peter and James.
AC 20:35 Quotes Jesus as having said: "It is more blessed to give than to receive." (No such statement of Jesus is found elsewhere in the Bible.)
RO 9:15-18 God has mercy on, and hardens the hearts of, whom he pleases.
2TH 2:11-12 God deceives the wicked so as to be able to condemn them.
1TI 2:3-4, 2PE 3:9 [Yet] God wants all to be saved.
RO 10:11 (An alleged OT quote; no such statement in the OT.)
RO 14:21 It is good neither to eat flesh, nor to drink wine, nor anything that might cause your brother to stumble or be offended.
CN 2:16 Let no one pass judgement on you in matters of food and drink.
JA 4:5 (Quotes an alleged OT scripture verse not found in the OT.)
RE 8:7 All of the grass on earth is burned up, and then …
RE 9:4 An army of locusts, which is about to be turned loose on the earth, is instructed not to harm the grass.
VI. Prophecies and Promises
1. Cain will become a fugitive (Gen 4:12, 14). But he built a city and presumably lived in it (Gen 4:16-17).
2. Israel will be captive 400 years in Egypt (Gen 15:13, Acts 7:6). It was 430 (Ex 12:40)
3. Jacob, renamed "Israel" by God, will never be called "Jacob" again (Gen 32:28, 35:9-10). He was continually called "Jacob" afterwards (ca. 40 times in Genesis, e.g. 49:33, 11 times in Ex).
4. There shall be no miscarriage or barrenness among the Israelites in Israel (Ex 23:26).
5. Ephraim and Manasseh will drive out the Canaanites (Josh 17:17-18, also Ex 33:2, 34:11; God had earlier promised to"destroy" the Canaanites at Ex 23:23-24, Deut 31:3-5). Hornets will drive them out (Ex 23:28). But they did not (Judg 1:27-29, 3:1-3, 4:2-3, Num 14:45).
6. Zebulon will dwell at the seaside (Gen 49:13). But its territory was entirely inland (Josh 19:10-16; look at any map of the tribes’ territories).
7. Israel will never be ruled by another nation (Deut 15:6). But Mesopotamia ruled it for eight years (Judg 3:8), Moab for 18 (3:14), and many other nations have ruled it since, although
God said "I will not fail thee nor forsake thee" (Josh 1:5).
8. Jerusalem will never more be entered by the uncircumcised or the unclean. Jerusalem will be forever delivered from foreign domination (Isa 52, Joel 3:17). Jerusalem will never be destroyed again forever (Jer 31:40). Jerusalem was almost continually under foreign domination and has been destroyed several times, e.g. by the Romans in 132 AD.
9. Judah will be captive for 70 years in Babylon (Jer 25:11-13). The captivity lasted from 586 (or 597) to 538 BC, only 48 (or 59) years.
10. If Israel is not obedient, it will suffer all the curses listed in Deut 28:15-68, including being returned to slavery in Egypt (Deut 28:15, 68). The Israelites were not obedient, but they never again became Egyptian slaves.
11. Jews who move to Egypt will die out with no remnant (Jer 42:17). But Jews established a large settlement at Alexandria and other places in Egypt and thrived there for many centuries.
12. Damascus will become a ruinous heap, no longer a city (Isa 17:1). But Damascus has had an uninterrupted existence as an important city for 3500 years.
13. God will destroy the seed of David’s enemies (Ps 21:10). The descendants of David’s enemies are now very populous.
14. No king will ever have as much wealth as Solomon (2 Chron 1:12)
15. God satisfies the desires of every living thing (Ps 145:16).
16. Amaziah’s sons will all die by the sword (Amos 7:17). But his son Uzziah died of leprosy (2 Chron 26:1, 21).
17. Isaiah 7, 8 prophesies to Ahaz, king of Judah, that Syria and Israel will not prevail against him. They did (2 Chron 28;2 Kings 16:5 gives a different result).
18. Isaiah 8:4-8 promised that Assyria would assist Judah. It did
not (2 Chron 28:16-20; 2 Kings 16 gives a different result).
19. Tyre will be destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar and never be rebuilt (Ezek 26:3-14,21, 27:36, 28:19). Tyre was besieged but not destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar (Ezek 29:18). Alexander the
Great destroyed it three centuries later, but it was immediately rebuilt, was prominent in Jesus’ time, and still exists today (Matt 15:21, Acts 21:3, and other passages). Isaiah 23 says Tyre will be rebuilt after 70 years.
20. Nebuchadnezzar will not be able to conquer Tyre, and so God will allow him to conquer Egypt instead (Ezek 29:18-20, 30:4-19). Nebuchadnezzar never conquered Egypt.
21. Judah will be a terror to Egypt, which will then worship God (Isa 19). Nothing like this has ever occurred.
22. The Canaanite language will be spoken in five Egyptian cities (Isa 19:18). This never occurred, and that language is now extinct.
23. Israel will have the labor and produce of Egypt and Ethiopia, who will be Israel’s slaves (Isa 45:14). This never occurred.
24. Israel will never again (after Isaiah’s time) be ravished by plunder (Isa 62:8-9). It has been destroyed and ravished numerous times since then.
25. Egypt will be made desolate and waste and be uninhabited for 40 years, no one will pass through it, and the Egyptians will be scattered (Ezek 29:9-16, Joel 3:19 – Joel says this event
is "near" at 2:1, 3:14). This never occurred.
26. The Nile River will dry up (Isa 19:5, Ezek 30:12, Zech 10:11). This has never occurred.
27. Edom (Idumaea) will be waste, no human will pass through it (Isa 34:9-10). This area (between Sinai and the Dead Sea) has always been populated.
28. Zedekiah will die in peace (Jer 34:3-5). He was blinded and died a captive in Babylon (Jer 52:9-11, 2 Kings 25:7).
29. Babylon will be destroyed by the Medes in a time "near to come" and it shall never again be inhabited, and the Arab will not pitch his tent there (Isa 13, 8th century BC). Sennacherib (never destroyed, continually inhabited and still inabited in Iraq)
an Assyrian, destroyed it in 689 BC, but Esarhaddon rebuilt it. Jeremiah again (Jer 25:12-13, 50:9-40, 51:26-43)) prophesied its total destruction and lack of habitation (v 13). It was conquered by the Persians Cyrus and Xerxes, and again by Alexander the Macedonian in 323, who died there. It was inhabited up to 275 BC, when its inhabitants moved to a new village nearby. Its temples were still in use a century later. It is now an archeological site, attracting tourists, i.e., there are people there.
30. Josiah will die in peace (2 Kings 22:18-20). He died from wounds inflicted in battle (2 Chron 35:20-24).
31. Jehoiakim’s body would be desecrated by his people and dragged outside the gates of Jerusalem (Jer 22:18-19, 36:30-31). He was carried captive to Babylon and died there (2 Chron 36:5-6; see also 2 Kings 24:6, which implies he had a peaceful death).
32. Jehoiakim will have no successor on the throne of David; his seed is cursed (Jer 36:30-31). But his son reigned, although briefly (2 Chron 36:8-9, 2 Kings 24:6-8). And Jesus is his
descendant (1 Chron 3:16-17, Matt 1:12).
33. Ammonites will be "no more remembered [after 6th century BC]"(Ezek 21:28-32). Ammonites continued to exist into 2nd century AD (and are remembered by this mention in the
34. Antiochus IV (the "king of the north") will conquer Egypt, Libya and Ethiopia, and die in an encampment between Jerusalem and the Mediterranean Sea (Dan 11:43-45). He never made thoseconquests (although he briefly occupied part of Egypt), and he died in Persia.
35. Jerusalem will be destroyed by a flood (Dan 9:26). Christians interpret Daniel’s prophecy to refer to the destruction of 70 AD, but there was no flood then, or at any other time.
36. Jesus’ followers will do greater works than he (John 14:12).
37. Believers in Christ will be able to drink poison, survive bite of poisonous snakes (Mark 16:17-18, Luke 10:19).
38. Jesus said cock would not crow till Peter had denied him three times (John 13:38), but Mark 14:66-68 says cock crowed after the first.
39. Jesus said he would be in the tomb three days and three nights (Matt 12:40). But he was buried on Friday and had been resurrected by early Sunday, only two nights.
40. The Second Coming (and the End of the World) was promised by Jesus to be within the generation contemporary with him (Matt 10:7, 23, 16:28, 24:32-34, Mark 9:1, 13:24-30, Luke
9:27, 21:25-32). Paul also said this (1 Thess 4:15, 17, Heb 1:2, 10:37, 9:26 ["now in the end of the world he hath appeared"], 1 Cor 7:29; also 1 John 2:18, James 5:8, 1 Pet 4:7 ["end of all things is at hand"]). Jesus says that some of his listeners will "not taste death" until he returns in glory (Matt 16:28, Mark 9:1, 13:30, Luke 9:27). See also Matt 4:17, John 5:25, 12:31, Rev 1:1, 3, 3:11, 22:6-12, on the imminence of the last days ("soon", "shortly"). Luke is the only one to hedge, saying "the end is not by and by" (Luke 21:9, 19:11). Joel said (4th cent. B.C.) that Judgment Day was "near" even then (Joel 3:14, 2:1). Paul and John say that their own time is the end of the world because the signs have already appeared (Heb 9:26, 1 John 2:18).
B. "Fulfillment" of non-existent prophecies
1. John 7:38. "Out of his heart will flow rivers of living water."
2. Luke 24:46, 1 Cor 15:34. Messiah would die, be buried, rise on third day.
3. Matt 27:9-10 cites a non-existent passage in Jeremiah, "fulfilled" when Judas takes the 30 pieces of silver and buys a potter’s field. (Zech 11:12-13 mentions 30 pieces of
silver and a potter, but it is not a prophecy)
4. Matt 2:23. Messiah would be called a Nazarene.
C. "Fulfillment" of passages not intended as prophecies
1. Ps 16:8-10 "fulfilled" at Acts 2:27-28, 13:35-36. You will not leave my soul in Hell.
2. Ps 41:9 "fulfilled" at Acts 1:16. My friend, whom I trusted has lifted up his heel against me.
3. Ps 78:2 "fulfilled" at Matt 13:35. I will open my mouth in parables.
4. Hosea 11:1 "fulfilled" at Matt 2:15. The flight into Egypt.
5. Ps 69:21 at John 19:28. Vinegar to drink.
6. Ps 69:9 at John 2:13-17, Rom 15:3. "The zeal of thine house has eaten me up" = Jesus’ cleansing of the temple.
7. Ps 69:25 at Acts 1:18-20. My enemies’ habitation be made desolate = Judas’ fate.
8. Isaiah 9:1-2 at Matt 5:14-16. Land of Zabulon and Naphthali, which were in darkness, saw light.
VII. Absurdities and Oddities
A. Animals were only given green herb to eat (Gen 1:30) and there was presumably no death before the fall. When then, did god design carnivores? Did he design them with venom, claws, and canine teeth because his creation was ultimately designed to fall into corruption?
B. Why would god create a world in which living things must kill and devour other living things in order to survive?
C. It takes an omnipotent god seven days to create the universe and then he needed to rest.
D. God names his garden Eden, a Sumerian word meaning "fertile plain?" Is Sumerian the Adamic language?
E. God doesn’t remove the garden immediately, instead he waits choosing to guard it with a cherubim and a flaming sword Gen 3:24
F. God expects Adam and Eve to resist temptation when they didn’t know the difference between good and evil until after they had eaten the fruit
G. Cain was afraid of being cast out because people who saw him would kill him. There were only three people documented on the face of the earth at the time. Everyone alive would have had to have been a close relative/ Gen 4:14-15
H. Where did Cain’s wife come from? Gen 4:17
I. There were giants on the earth at one time. Gen 6:4 (Note: No evidence exists to supports this assertion.)
J. God destroys unborn children and all of the animal life in the flood for man’s sin. Gen 5:5-7, 11
K. Noah and the animals survive in the ark with only one window for ventilation Gen 6:16
L. How did Noah feed the carnivorous animals?
M. How did Koala’s get to Australia after the ark washed up on the mountain? (There is a very good evolutionary explanation with undeniable evidence including marsupial fossils found throughout the strata of North America, migrating through Antarctica and ending up in Australia, where they evolved into the multiple forms of marsupials as demonstrated in the fossil record and present day life of Australia.)
N. There were enough people to form nations in only three generations after the flood (144 years,) giving Noah’s great grandson the manpower to build the Tower of Babel.
O. Exactly what was the result of God’s confounding of the human languages? Why would some people move and others stay, did he think we wouldn’t be able to learn foreign language or that we could actually build a tower to the heavens? Why doesn’t he do the same to us now since we have achieved space flight?
P. There is no mention in the entire OT after Gen 11 of any event in Gen 1-11… The creation, the fall, the serpent, the flood, Babel etc.
Q. Jacob alters the genetic characteristics of cattle by letting them view a striped rod. (Note: His purpose in doing so was to fleece Laban of his cattle.) Gen 30:37-43
R. Twins are being delivered. One puts out his hand and the midwife binds it with a scarlet ribbon to identify him as the firstborn. But he draws back his hand, and his brother is born first (thereby obtaining the rights of the firstborn son). Gen 38:27-29
S. Why didn’t Isaac simply revoke his blessing of Jacob instead of blessing him again? Why would god honor the blessing obtained by deceiving a dying blind man?
T. God advises Moses through a pagan priest Ex 13:1-27
U. The Lord kills all the first-born of Egypt and there is not a house where there is not at least one dead. (This means that there was not a house in Egypt that did not include at least one first-born—a most unusual situation.) Ex 12:30
V. The number of men of military age who take part in the Exodus is given as about 600,000. Allowing for women, children, and older men would probably mean that a total of more than 2,000,000 Israelites left Egypt at a time when the whole population of Egypt was less than 2,000,000. Ex 12:37, Nu 1:45-46
W. God kills 50,000 men at Bethshemesh. This is several times as many as the entire population of Jerusalem at the time 1 Sam 6:19.
X. A man has an obligation to produce a child with his brother’s widow. If he refuses, his sister-in-law is to spit in his face in front of the elders. Dt 25:5-9
Y. Solomon’s temple was only about ninety feet long by thirty feet wide, yet 153,300 persons were employed to build it. It took seven years to build. ~7,500,000 lbs. of gold and ~75,000,000 lbs. of silver were used. 24,000 supervisors and 6,000 officials and judges were employed to manage it. (Note: Inasmuch as there seems to be uncertainty as to the exact weight of the biblical talent, some estimates place the weight of gold at more than 13,000,000 lbs. and the weight of silver at more than 116,000,000 lbs.) 1KI 5:15-16 1KI 6:2, 2CH 3:3 1KI 6:38 1CH 23:4 1CH 22:14
Z. Solomon sacrificed 22,000 oxen and 120,000 sheep in one week. This is 845+ animals per hour, 14+ animals per minute, for seven days straight. 2CH 7:5, 8-9
A1. 500,000 Israelites are slain in a single battle. (Note: This is more than were lost in any single battle of World War II, and even exceeds the number of deaths that resulted from the dropping of the atomic bombs on Nagasaki and Hiroshima.) 2CH 13:17
B1. Other Holy books quoted and sourced by the bible:
1. Book of Jasher Josh 10:13, 2 Sam 1:18
2. Book of Wars of Jehovah Num 21:14
3. Laws of Samuel 1 Sam 10:25
4. Acts of Solomon 1 Kings 11:41
5. Chronicles of Kings of Judah 1 Kings 15:7, 23
6. Chronicles of Kings of Israel 2 Kings 14:15, 28
7. Annals of King David 1 Chr 27:24
8. Histories of Samuel the Seer, Nathan the Prophet, Gad the Seer 1 Chr 29:29
9. Prophecy of Ahijah, Visions of Iddo the Seer 2 Chr 9:29
10. History of Shemaiah the Prophet 2 Chr 12:15, 13:22
11. Book of Jehu 2 Chr 20:34
12. Sayings of the Seers 2 Chr 33:19
13. Book of Enoch Jude 14
C1. A prophet of God to be consulted to find lost livestock 1 Sam 9:1-10:2
D1. God destroyed the people of palestine to make way for israel and justified their destruction because they were wicked. He never attempts to teach them his ways, seeing as Israel was not righteous or monotheistic either.
E1. The virgin birth is ignored by Mark and John. Jesus, Mary, nor Paul ever discuss it.
F1. Jesus stated that believers would be able to handle snakes and drink poison without experiencing any harm. Mk 16:17-18
G1. Jesus states that some of his listeners would not taste death before he comes again in his kingdom 2,000 years ago Mt 16:28, Mk 9:1, Lk 9:27
H1. Jesus curses a fig tree for not bearing fruit out of season. MK 11:12-14, 20-21
J1. Why does god want to torment some of his creatures for eternity because they displeased him out of ignorance or poor judgment? Why not just annihilate them? Wouldn’t that be what a merciful creator would do?
K1. God allows Job to be a helpless victim, a wager in a bet with Satan
L1. Why did God choose to appear to Israel only? If he can do anything and be everywhere at once, why couldn’t he be bothered to appear to the other people of the world as well? Isn’t he supposed to have no respect of persons?
M1. The city of New Jerusalem (where the residents of heaven reside) is only about 1500 miles square. RE 21:16
N1. Do not mix clothes of wool and linen together, and make tassels on your cloaks Deut 22:11-12
O1. Eating shellfish is an abomination Lev 11:10
P1. One cannot approach the altar of god if they have a defect in sight Lev 21:20
Q1. Touching the skin of a dead pig makes one unclean (football) Lev 11:6-8
R1. It is wrong to plant two types of crops in the same field Lev 19:19
S1. Abortion is condoned in the bible
1. If a man hurts a woman who is pregnant and the baby dies but she doesn’t, he isn’t to be killed and the punishment is to be left up to the husband. This means that an unborn child does not have the same value as a living person as murder of a living person elsewhere in the bible requires execution. Ex 21:22-23
3. Num 5:11-21 describes a bizarre ritual that is performed on a wife that is merely suspected of adultery to induce an abortion.
2. Hosea prays for god to cause all the ephraimite women to miscarry and god obliges. Hos 9:11-16
4. Moses orders the killing of all male children and women that are pregnant or that might even be pregnant to end the genetic line of an enemy. Num 31:17
5. God promises to dash to pieces the infants of Samaria and the "women with child shall be ripped up." Hos 13:16
VIII. Christian Apologists Refutations
A. Weak Refutations – Why would the most perfect and most important book directly from the lips of god not be able to be clearly correct? If man can produce mathematics and science that are nearly impossible to improve upon, why can god not give us a book that any child could easily improve upon, especially considering he demands we believe it at risk of hellfire?
B. Scribal errors – Isn’t every word of god pure and preserved to never pass away? Is god not able to keep humans from screwing up his master piece, or does he just not care?
IX. Room for Improvement
A. This is said to be the most perfect book ever, the pure word of god containing his will for mankind. However it is unclear, has contradictions, problematic verses and leaves people split on what it actually says.
B. Man has produced works of mathematics and scientific publications that hold up to hundreds of years of scrutiny with no or little room for improvement and only by the greatest minds doing extensive research, however the bible could be immediately improved by even the simplest minds by just correcting conflicting statements or removing the bits about being killed for mixing two types of material in your clothing.
C. There is not one single thing contained in the bible that could not have been written by a first century man. Why does the bible not contain any of the knowledge that an omniscient being would have had, or really any useful knowledge at all? Wouldn’t revealing something like germ theory have helped to substantiate the legitimacy of the bible as the word of god, while also saving lives and reducing suffering from disease?
The Problem of Prayer (How prayer is demonstrably a waste of time)
I. Purpose of prayer
A. God is meant to be omniscient, then what is the purpose of making requests known to him?
B. God is omnipotent, personal and loving, why does prayer need to be offered to sway him to intervene?
II. Effectiveness of Prayer
A. By the law of large numbers, a small number of prayers will be answered because you are asking for something within the realm of natural possibility already. What about all of the times it goes unanswered?
B. Why doesn’t God heal amputees?
1. Can god heal supernaturally and perform supernatural miracles?
2. If yes, why is it silly to ask him to heal an amputee which should be simple compared to curing cancer? Why doesn’t he cure Down’s syndrome, or heal the blind?
C. Why doesn’t he answer the prayers of those suffering horrible atrocities in which he has the power to intervene, but chooses to answer menial requests such as helping us to raise funds at a church car wash, or to win at a sporting competition?
D. Retrospective prayers
1. Praying for something that has already happened.
2. If you are praying for a loved one that you have not heard from that was in an tsunami, do you continue to pray for god to keep them safe when you find out they are dead? If not, why not? Can he answer prayers retrospectively or not?
E. All studies on the efficacy of prayer have shown no differences between a prayed for group and a control group, one study even suggested that people who were told they were being prayed for fared worse.
III. Harm caused by prayer
A. Reliance on prayer over medicine or financial planning.
B. Reliance on prayer as a way to make decisions.
1. Likely is a derivative of the Sun god Amen-ra or Amun-ra whom the Egyptians sent their prayers through
2. Using the word to form a strong statement is seen only starting in the gospels, there is no Jewish or old testament practice that uses it as anything other than to express agreement with another speaker.
The Problem of Miracles (Why miracles are not convincing)
I. Not reproducible – Miracles, apparently, were once performed rampantly even before non-believers, why today (after cameras were invented) can we not have even one reproducible, verifiable miracle?
II. Not useful – Why aren’t they being used in children’s hospitals?
III. Almost always what people are calling miracles are not suspensions of the natural order in our favor, but are only things within the realm of natural possibility that are unlikely to occur, never things that are scientifically impossible. With billions of people in the world, coincidences and things with low probabilities are bound to occur in accordance with random chance. (Cured cancer, near misses, awoken coma pt’s.)
IV. Trickery, or misunderstanding
A. Peter Popoff and other famous healers using pre-filled out cards and radio equipment to trick.
B. Glossolalia – Pentecostal speaking in tongues found to be gibberish by linguists sampling thousands of examples by Pentecostal speakers.
1. Only uses sounds and patterns used in the native tongue of the speaker
2. Syllable strings do not form words, is not internally organized and most importantly there is no systematic relationship between units of speech and concepts
C. Out of body experiences
1. Reproducible with events of hypoxia such as during astronaut training. Ischemia of the brain is what happens during death.
2. Medical studies placing items above the bed of dying patients to see if they can recall the item if they truly floated above their body have shown no results supporting out of body experiences.
D. Premonition and Prophecy
1. Cold reading techniques
2. People will recall the strong hits while ignoring the misses, though the misses are the majority.
The Problem of the Spirit (Why we demonstrably are purely physical beings)
I. Physical Material of the Mind / Spirit
A. If the human mind is a result of a soul or a ghost in the machine and not electrochemical changes in the brain, then it should not be dependant on the mechanical configuration of the brain that houses it.
B. There is NO aspect of the mind that does not correspond to a physical region of the brain
C. Changes in personality when chemical or mechanical changes occur in brain, such as in the case of Phineas Gauge, Amnesia, Schizophrenia, Aphasia, Depression, Hallucinogens etc.
D. Neuroscience can observe emotion, thoughts, processes of speech and vision etc in firing neurons.
E. Empirical studies on homosexuality show arousal areas in the brain responding to pheromones in gay men and heterosexual women found in sweat, as well as the opposite in straight men and gay women. Again showing that this is not a choice or state of the soul, but a chemical and neurological response of the brain.
II. Out of Body / Near Death
A. Have been reproduced in labs without any actual out of body experience occurring.
2. Pilot Training Centrifuge experienced peace, light at end of tunnel, seeing family and friends.
B. Process of Dying
1. During death the brain is suffering / dying from hypoxia
2. DMT (Dimethyltriptamine) is released by the pineal gland under great stress.
a. Causes people to see bright lights
b. Causes out of body experiences
The Problem of a Jesus’ Second Coming (unfinished)
I. The Timing of the Coming
A. Jesus indicated he would be coming in his current generation..
B. The apostles believed he would be coming in their generation.
II. The Circumstances of the Coming
A. Overthrowing the Romans
B. Destruction of Nero
C. Ending the persecution of the early church.
The Problem of a Young Earth and Universe (Why the Bible’s claim that the universe is only 6,000 years old is literally a willful ignorance of the evidence)
I. Cosmologic Evidence
A. Farthest stars are over 10 billion light years away – the amount of time for light to travel implies the universe must be old. The visible realm is 14.5 light years out.
1. Light can be measured multiple different ways, all of which agree on the constant speed of light.
2. Light has been measured from multiple different galaxies, all of which show light moving at the same speed as it does here on earth.
3. Triangulating stars (measuring the distance from two location in the earth’s orbit) is in agreement with the distance of stars according to red shift, measuring the distance and movement of a start based on its shifting towards red in the spectrum of light.
4. If the stars were close enough for the light to have reached us in 6,000 years, the universe would be ripped apart by gravity.
B. Expanding universe and the cosmic microwave background
1. We know that objects are moving away from us uniformly due to an increasing red shift in light as objects are further away.
2. We observe a cosmic microwave background that is necessary if the universe was once so hot that it was radio opaque.
2. These phenomenon are essential predictions of the Big Bang. Creationism offers no explanation for account or why these things even exist.
C. Formation of planets and stars
1. Moons, planets and large astral bodies are roughly spherical ecxept for where forces specifically act to (predictably) reshape their surface, such as erosion. This is predicted and demanded by the cosmologic model of planet formation. Gravity causes matter to be attracted to other matter, and as the bodies become larger, gravity pulls equally in all directions on the total body, resulting in a sphere.
2. Elliptical orbits are explained by the competing gravity of the sun pulling planets towards it’s center and the original velocity of the planet when it was formed. The velocity of the planet seeks to travel in a straight line but it is pulled back towards the center by the gravity of the sun.
3. Uniform orbits of planets in a solar system is accounted for by planets maintaining the original spin of the rotating and condensing nebula cloud from which the system formed.
3. Creationism offers no explanation for these phenomenon other than the will of the creator. Why no spherical planets? Why do planets orbit in an elliptical fashion if they were formed by god instead of entering into orbit after formation – or if the earth was formed before the sun? Why do we find no planets that rotate contrary to their solar system’s orbit?
II. Radiometric Dating
A. Unstable radioactive materials degrade at a known rate (different for each radioactive material) and leave a stable daughter isotope behind. By looking at the amount of remaining unstable radioactive isotopes and comparing it to the stable daughter isotopes we can know how long ago something would have formed.
B. Parent Atoms + Daughter atoms = original atoms
C. Decay is constant and can be measured
D. Over 40 forms of isotope dating that are all working on different principles, and using different radioactive clocks, and consistently agree with and confirm each other.
E. Radiometric dating agrees with the dates we know from biological dating (explained next)
F. There are only a small handful of examples where the dating did not work against the known age of a substance – each time it was because the dating was being performed incorrectly, often purposely incorrectly for experimental purposes.
III. Biologic and Historic Dating that agrees with and verifies radiometric dating
A. Sumerian civilizations were founded between 4500 B.C. and 4000 B.C.
B. Coral rings measuring days and years bear out being millions of years old. The oldest have 400 days per year making them 500 million years old. This is the result of the earth rotation slowing slightly every year (20 seconds every million years) and therefore the earth once having shorter days and more days per year. Doing the math put’s the 400 day year at 500 million years ago, and radiometric dating agrees! The radiometric dating of these corals agrees with the biological dating, as predicted by science.
C. Tree rings over 11,000 years old, verified by cross-referencing sections from different trees that were alive at the same time, and adding up the years. Verified with radiometric dating.
D. 10,000 year old societys and 11,000 year old temple (Gobekli Tepe)
E. Using glacier sections, we can see ice layering which is the result of the annual winter’s snow to glaze over into a sheet. This ice sheet forms differently from year to year and our most recent glacier deposits are at least 160,000 years old using this method.
F. A method similiar to ice layering can measure years by tracking layers of plankton build up on the sea-floor, again showing the earth to be at least 56 million years old.
G. The fossils found in strata layers are arranged by complexity and ancestry and are found where they would be expected to be found. (Marsupials in Antarctica)
The Problem of Special Creation (The Fact and Grandeur of Evolution)
I. Evolution 101
A. Evolution – Very gradual changes in genes from one generation to the next that arise from mutation and imperfect copying of the parent genome to the offspring.
B. Natural Selection – These changes are naturally selected in a population over time when they offer a reproductive advantage in the presence of an environmental pressure to the organisms that have the gene copy, as they are able to live to reproductive age, have increased capacity to reproduce, or have offspring that are more likely to survive to reproductive age.
C. Speciation – These gradual changes eventually result in speciation over time, as species divulge.
D. Common Ancestry – All lifeforms on earth are the result of speciation from an original ancestor.
I. Fossil Evidence
A. Bottom up layering of simple species to complex. Prediction of Common Ancestry. (geological succession)
1. Microorganisms at bottom (Precambrian)
2. Only find species resembling modern species at top (No rabbit in the Precambrian)
3. Approx 250 million fossils found in the correct strata and time in which they should exist
a. less than a dozen fossils have been found in misplaced strata
b. each have been thoroughly documented as to why, and not a single one is actually misplaced
c. Fossils that lie across several strata were buried quickly
d. Not all strata are found in all geographies, but radiometric dating always agrees with them being the age they should be, in other words, the strata are not affected by pressure or depth in terms of altering the accuracy of radiometric dating.
e. The only place that strata are in the "incorrect order" is in mountain tops where they have been folded onto each other in a predictable way.
4. Life increasingly diverse the higher in the strata, simpler forms still remain but branch off.
a. Microorganisms and bacteria 250bya
b. Sponge like animals 540mya
c. Vertebras (tetrapods/ fish) 270-300mya
d. Land Reptiles and Dinosaurs 240-150mya
e. Mammals 250mya
f. Equidae 50mya
g. Hominids 10mya
h. Why do we find no examples of humans, or even mammals in the earliest strata layers if we were created at the same time as everything else?
B. Millions of transitional fossils found in the correct strata for their timeline, for hundreds of species
1. Reptiles and birds.
a. Anatomists had noticed similarities in nesting postures and physical anatomy of dinosaur fossils and birds.
2. Whales and land animals
3. Misonceptions of “Missing Links”
1. The huge improbability of a fossilization occurring means that our record will not be able to trace the exact lineage, but we can find close cousins and a trend in the strata as we move upward of fossils changing to look more and more like their modern descendants, we cannot however, necessarily pinpoint the exact species from which modern species specifically are descended because of the extreme improbability of a fossil occurring at all.
2. Also, we will only find intermediates between ancestors and descendants, not between modern animals, who are also evolved. There are no CrocoDucks.
3. Every life-form is a transitional form. It’s like Spanish and Italian languages, they both are derived from Latin. However, there is no Latin speaking mother who suddenly gave birth to a Spanish speaking baby, the languages gradually changed with generations of speakers. Some continued speaking Latin, some speakers had small changes that led them towards modern Spanish and others towards modern Italian. There were gradual steps in between, not a sudden hybrid intermediary language. These languages continue to gradually change today. (Matt Dilahunty)
C. Hominid intermediates
1. Ardipithecus 4.4MYA
2. Australopithecus afarensis 4.0-2.0MYA
3. Homo habilis 2.5-1.5MYA
4. Homo erectus 2.0-1.0MYA
5. Archaic homosapiens ( Homo heidelbergensis, Homo rhodesiensis, Homo neanderthalensis) 500Ka – recent
D. The incomplete fossil record
1. The fossil record is necessarily incomplete due to the rare conditions required for a fossilization to occur in the first place, and processes such as erosion
2. Even with an incomplete fossil record, we have over 250 million fossils found were evolution predicts they should be found in the earth’s strata, showing a clear evolutionary ladder from simpler to more complex species.
A. Genetic Sequencing
1. An evolutionary tree can be drawn by comparing similarity in gene sequencing between species. This works even for unrelated and randomly selected genes – the same tree bears out. The same DNA fingerprinting that is used to determine paternal ancestry or DNA fingerprinting in crimes can be used to demonstrate relationships between species.
2. Ubiquitous genes. Prediction of Common Ancestry. (earliest genes shared by all subsequent lifeforms)
a. there are certain genes that all lifeforms need or use for basic life functions, from bacteria to humans.
b. There are multiple sequences in which these genes could be expressed and still work, but simple ubiquitous genes all have the same sequencing from bacteria to humans.
c. As you move further away from ubiquitious genes towards more recently developed and species-specific genes that provide more complicated functions, the genes start to take on different sequences to perform the same functions in separate species.
d. The only time the same sequences are passed on is by inheritance (again we use DNA sequencing to determine paternity for this reason.) In other words, two separate species might have two completely different sequences that code for the same protein or genetic function, while two closely related species might have very similar sequencing for the same protein, but the most basic genes are all shared by every living animal.
3. Non-ubiquitous genes
a.In more complex, newer genes we find that they are slightly reworked sequences of an older more ubiquitious genes found in an organism.
b. This strongly suggests that the ubiquitous genes are older, and that the more recent and species specific functions came later in evolution.
c. If we found genetic functions that were essential to survival or "older" genes that were reworked versions of more complicated genes our entire theory would fall apart, but we never do. We always find that the simpler and older evolutionary functions most resemble the ubiquitous genes, and that the more complicated genes are reworked sequencing of these genes.
1.Share 98% of DNA – including psuedogenes, with chimps
2.Retroviruses and telomeres transcribed in the same way on DNA between humans and monkeys
3.Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, Monkeys have 24
a. Human chromosome 2 is identical to a pair of monkey chromosomes fused together, including two telomeres in the center and two on the end.
4.Ancient DNA sequencing confirms evolutionary predictions
a. Mastodon is closely related to modern elephant
b. T-rex related to modern bird
a. Mitochondria has its own DNA (mtDNA) sequencing separate from the DNA in our cells.
b. Closely related species have more similar mitochondrial DNA
i. Humans and chimps
ii. Mastodon and Elephant
iii. T-rex and birds
1. Over 2000 mutated ancient genes that have no purpose, that are obviously degraded genes of our ancestors.
2. Once a gene is inactivated it can be mutated without causing an adverse effect.
3. Produces vestigial features (Human tail)
4. GLO gene is turned off in the exact same sequence in humans and monkeys
5. Broken copies of tooth enamel genes in mammals not having teeth (armadillo, sperm whale)
6. Broken Terrestrial gene sequencing for sense of smell in dolphins
7. Transopons (Viruses written into genome) are found in the same sequence in all mammals, the closer in ancestry, the more transopons we share.
8. Gene sequencing for legs in whales, dolphins and snakes
a. Hind legs are also clearly seen in the developing embryos of these creatures
b. The structures disappear in development, but sometimes an error occurs and a vestigial trait is formed.
9. Gene in monkeys that helps to repair broken DNA replication, preventing cancer is mutated in humans in such a way that helps sperm to be more virulent. This gene would be naturally selected because it makes the bearer more likely to make copies of itself by reproducing, despite the fact it makes one more likely to die later.
10. Gene in monkeys that suppresses brain growth is present in humans, but shut off, paving the way for our bigger brains.
D. Useless designs and Vestigial traits
1. The human appendix – useful only in animals that digest cellulose
a. Having an appendix puts you at a higher risk of death due to appendicitis
b. Many people are born without appendix, without modern surgery this would be selected.
2. The laryngeal nerve that aimlessly wraps around the heart, exposing us to injury because we inherited it from neckless fish. (This 15ft detour is also found in giraffes)
3. The unattached pelvis of all whales (including vestigial legs at times)
4. Caruncles in marsupials that would be used to break open an egg during delivery.
III. Geological evidence predicted by evolution, unexplained by creation
A. Species are only found in areas their immediate ancestors had access to.
1. Marsupials are only found in Australia – as are their ancestor fossils, with one exception
2. Marsupial in America (the opossum)
a. Glacial scratches on the earth’s strata suggest the earth was once a giant continent
b. Marsupial migration from America to Australia can be followed through this giant continent in the fossil record, including marsupials found in Antarctica.
B. Continental vs. Oceanic Island life
1. Continental islands have mammals and animals resembling their parent continent
2. Oceanic islands only have birds, insects, plants that could be carried or migrate by wind
a. Usually have one predominant species that has several unique radiations due to no competition
b. Only mammals are those that can fly or swim long distances
C. Convergent Evolution
1. Plants and Animals of completely different species are similar when they are found in similar environments. (Cactus and succulents)
2. Animals selectively bred by humans often mirror naturally selected animals (cheetah and greyhound)
3. Animals and plants often evolve similar traits independently of one another and using entirely different DNA sequences when exposed to similar environmental pressures.
A. Vestiges of Human embryos that are shed during embryonic development
1. Gill like structures
2. Coat of fur that covers embryo that is identical to monkey fur (Lanugo)
3. Egg Yolk sac, with accompanying vestigial egg yolk genes
4. Tails that are present on all embryos during development.
B. Vestiges shared by closely related species.
1. Whales and dolphins have hind and forelimb buds as embryos that turn off during gestation, some survive to produce vestigial legs and limbs.
V. Observable speciation and evolution
A. Ring Species of salamanders in the united states that have evolved as they have moved in two different geographical paths along the pacific coast and the mountain ranges.
B. Elephant tusks (elephants born with tusks up from 2% to 40% since poaching for ivory)
C. Anolis lizards introduced to 14 different lizardless Caribbean islands in 1997 have evolved several new species.
D. New species of mosquito found only in the underground transit of London
E. New genetic material from duplication of RNASE1 (a gene for a pancreatic enzyme) has produced a new gene, RNASE1B that works better in the acidic stomach of the langur.
F. Mutated genetic material in flavobacterium found in pools containing waste from a nylon factory allows them to survive by digesting nylon through a sequencing mutation / copy error.
G. Mutation in the angiotensin gene in population in italy that causes resistance to atherosclerosis
H. Australian skin lizards currently on the verge of evolving from eggs to live birth.
I. Lizards in the croation islands who were planted there as insectivores, 35 years later their diet had adapted to become vegetarian, along with development of entirely new gastric valves, a larger gut structure and wider jaws that was more suitable for a vegetarian diet.
J. Populations of humans that have become immune to HIV through mutations, and the prevalence of sickle cell anemia, which makes a person more resistant to malara, in populations who originated from geographic areas where malaria is a common cause of death, and the lack of sickle cell amongst populations where there is no such geographical threat.
VI.There is no such thing as irreducible complexity
A.The evolved organ may have at once been less complex, but not missing parts.
1. The earliest eyeball was something like a simple patch of photosensitive skin on a worm
2. As this ‘eye’ evolved, the skin cupped which let the organism see which way light was coming in from, giving it a survival advantage.
3. If this cupping continued you would end up with a simple pinhole camera.
4. If any of these cells were mucus secreting, and it became lodged into the pinhole, you would now have a lens and be able to focus images.
5. Each piece of the eyeball has been found in other species in varying levels of complexity.
6. All of these possible intermediary eyeballs are found in various stages of evolution today.
B. If the organ was missing pieces, the remaining pieces needed only to be useful in some other way.
1. The blood clotting cascade – each factor is found in other animals performing different jobs than blood clotting.
2. Wings are used by flightless birds to gain speed, to jump further, to glide.
VII. Spontaneous life
A. Billions of years with trillions of planets, odds are very high that it may have occurred in other places as well.
B. Miller-Urey experiments produced large number of amino acid by recreating sterile conditions of pre-life earth in less than a week. All of the amino acids required to create the original genetic code were produced during the experiments.
C. Isn’t it intellectually dishonest to call it absurd that a simple organic life form could have arisen given several billion years and all of the components necessary, but to believe that a perfect lifeform has existed eternally without a cause?
VIII. Was evolution god’s design?
A. This would require that a benevolent god created a world and stood idly by for billions of years while it suffered, died, was confused and mislead and did nothing until the bronze age.
B. This would require that an omniscient god designed an incompetent design with flaws in designs found all around us.
C. This would require that god tricks us by having created a world in which all of the evidence points to an old universe with no special creation.
D. Why doesn’t he mention it in the bible? Why is the Bible’s description of the origins of life very similar to something an iron age man might have dreamed up and not the scientific truth from the divine omniscient engineer himself?
IX. Intelligent Design is not science
A. Has produced no research or testable experiments, or peer reviewed published papers
B. Has led to precisely zero new scientific discoveries.
C. Has no practical applications or functional use
D. Cannot be used to make predictions and so therefore is untestable and unfalsifiable. This also means that it has no positive evidence to substantiate it.
D. All "evidence" essentially boils down to irreducible complexity and god of the gap arguments (negative evidence)- which has been continuously debunked and is not evidence at all.
E. Has produced no mathematical models of the universe, while the scientific models work quite well.
F. Offers no explanation for some basic scientific known truths such as the rapid uniform expansion of the universe or the cosmic microwave background – these things are predicted and necessary in the big bang theory.
F. Consilience. Several completely unrelated fields of science looking at separate evidence all converge to support evolution, an old earth, and the big bang theory, while consequently moving away from an intelligent design model. (Geology, Biology, Genetics, Cosmology, Paleontology etc).
G. Even if we grant that evolution is false for the sake of argument, what then? What argument is the creationist left with to show that their model is correct and accurately describes the origin of life? Even if evolution is wrong, god does not win by default. The primary support for creationism is similar to the arguments that a god exists at all – arguments from ignorance and not positive evidence. It’s not Creation Vs. Evolution. It’s Evolution Vs every other one of the thousands of possible ideas.
Was America founded as a Christian Nation? ("For rebellion as is the sin of witchcraft." 1 Sam 15:23)
I. The Documents
A. The Constitution
1. Rights derived from "We the People," not god
2. Supports separation of church and state
a."Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press…"
b. "…no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United States."
B. The Declaration of Independence
1. Does reference a Deist god, not a Christian god
a. "…the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them"
b. "…that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights"
c. "…appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions"
2. Does not recognize a discoverable, knowable god and makes no special laws or privileges for him
C. The Treaty of Tripoli
1. "As the government of the United States of America is not in any sense founded on the Christian Religion,-as it has in itself no character of enmity against the laws, religion or tranquility of Musselmen…"
2. Ratified by Congress and Signed by President John Adams
II. The Founding Fathers (who left England to escape Christian Tyranny, as most of them were Deists)
A. John Adams – 2nd President
1. "Have you considered that system of holy lies and pious frauds that has raged and triumphed for 1500 years." – Letter to John Taylor
2. "The question before the human race is, whether the God of nature shall govern the world by his own laws, or whether priests and kings shall rule it by fictitious miracles." – Letter to Jefferson
B. Thomas Jefferson – 3rd President
1. "I do not find in orthodox Christianity one redeeming feature." – Notes on Virginia
2. "Religions are all alike – founded upon fables and mythologies." – Notes on Virginia
3. "Millions of innocent men, women, and children, since the introduction of Christianity, have been burned, tortured, fined, and imprisoned, yet we have not advanced one inch toward uniformity. What has been the effect of coercion? To make one half of the world fools and the other half hypocrites." – Notes on Virgina
4. "History, I believe, furnishes no example of a priest-ridden people maintaining a free civil government. This marks the lowest grade of ignorance of which their civil as well as religious leaders will always avail themselves for their own purposes" – Letter to von Humboldt
5. "The day will come when the mystical generation of Jesus, by the Supreme Being as His father, in the womb of a virgin will be classed with the fable of the generation of Minerva in the brain of Jupiter." – Letter to John Adams
6. "In every country and in every age, the priest has been hostile to liberty. He is always in alliance with the despot, abetting his abuses in return for protection to his own" – Letter to H. Spafford
7. "Where the preamble [of the Statute of Virginia for Religious Freedom] declares, that coercion is a departure from the plan of the holy author of our religion, an amendment was proposed by inserting the words “Jesus Christ,” so that it should read, “A departure from the plan of Jesus Christ, the holy author of our religion;” the insertion was rejected by a great majority, in proof that they meant to comprehend, within the mantle of its protection, the Jew and the Gentile, the Christian and Mohammedan, the Hindoo and Infidel of every denomination." – Autobiography
8. I contemplate with sovereign reverence that act of the whole American people which declared that their legislature should ‘make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof,’ thus building a wall of separation between church and State." – Letter to Danbury Baptist Association
9. "I consider the government of the U.S. as interdicted [forbidden] by the Constitution from intermeddling with religious institutions, their doctrines, discipline, or exercises…." – Letter to Rev. Samuel Miller
C. James Madison – 4th President
1. "During almost fifteen centuries has the legal establishment of Christianity been on trial. What has been its fruits? More or less, in all places, pride and indolence in the clergy; ignorance and servility in the laity; in both, superstition, bigotry, and persecution."
2. "In no instance have . . . the churches been guardians of the liberties of the people."
3. "Religious bondage shackles and debilitates the mind and unfits it for every noble enterprise."
D. Benjamin Franklin – Signed Constitution and Declaration
1. "The way to see by faith is to shut the eye of reason." – Poor Richard’s Almanac
2. "Lighthouses are more helpful than churches." – Autobiography
3. "He (the Rev. Mr. Whitefield) used, indeed, sometimes to pray for my conversion, but never had the satisfaction of believing that his prayers were heard." – Autobiography
E. George Washington – 1st President
1. He was a Freemason – A deist society
2. "Sir, Washington was a Deist." – Dr. Abercrombie, a friend of Washington
3. "often said in my hearing, though very sorrowfully, of course, that while Washington was very deferential to religion and its ceremonies, like nearly all the founders of the Republic, he was not a Christian, but a Deist." – Bradford speaking about his associate Ashbel Green, a minister and personal friend of Washington
F. Thomas Paine – Revolutionary and founding father, author
1. The christian religion is a parody on the worship of the Sun, in which they put a man whom they call Christ, in the place of the Sun, and pay him the same adoration which was originally paid to the Sun.
2. "What is it the New Testament teaches us? To believe that the Almighty committed debauchery with a woman engaged to be married; and the belief of this debauchery is called faith."
3. "Of all the tyrannies that affect mankind, tyranny in religion is the worst."
4. "Whenever we read the obscene stories, the voluptuous debaucheries, the cruel and torturous executions, the unrelenting vindictiveness, with which more than half of the Bible is filled, it would be more consistent that we call it the word of a demon than the word of God. It is a history of wickedness that has served to corrupt and brutalize mankind.
5. "Take away from Genesis the belief that Moses was the author, on which only the strange belief that it is the word of God has stood, and there remains nothing of Genesis but an anonymous book of stories, fables, and traditionary or invented absurdities, or of downright lies."
6. "I do not believe in the creed professed by the Jewish Church, by the Roman Church, by the Greek Church, by the Turkish Church, by the Protestant Church, nor by any Church that I know of. My own mind is my own Church. Each of those churches accuse the other of unbelief; and for my own part, I disbelieve them all."
7. "The story of Jesus Christ appearing after he was dead is the story of an apparition, such as timid imaginations can always create in vision, and credulity believe. Stories of this kind had been told of the assassination of Julius Caesar."
8. "All national institutions of churches, whether Jewish, Christian or Turkish, appear to me no other than human inventions, set up to terrify and enslave mankind, and monopolize power and profit."
9. "The study of theology, as it stands in the Christian churches, is the study of nothing; it is founded on nothing; it rests on no principles; it proceeds by no authority; it has no data; it can demonstrate nothing; and it admits of no conclusion."
III. National Propaganda
1. Originally E Pluribus Unum – "One from Many" submitted in 1776
2. In God We Trust did not become national motto until 1956, used on some coinage in 1865
B. National Anthem
1. Written in 1814 by Francis Scott Key, in no way recognized nationally
2. Contains words "and this be our motto: In god we trust"
3. Not recognized for use by navy until 1889
4. Did not become national anthem in 1931
C. Pledge of Allegiance
1. Originally / 1892 "I pledge allegiance to my flag and to the republic for which it stands: one nation, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all."
2. 1924 "I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of America and to the republic for which it stands: one nation, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all."
3. Words "Under God" not added until 1954 during the height of McCarthyism
Bibliography (of sorts)
Fine tuning of the universe
http://www.talkorigins.org/indexcc/CI/CI301.html – Mark Isaak
Proving a negative – the Scriven-Martin Principle
Atheism: A Philosophical Justification. – Michael Martin
99% species are extinct
The Ancestor’s tale – Richard Dawkins
Living in a world not made for us
A universe not made for us (video) – Carl Sagan
Ontological argument – the bit about self-evident being required to be perfect came form a reddit conversation with wolffml.
Problem of predispositon – Outsider Test for Faith
The Outsider Test – John Loftus
Nine million children die each year
Sam harris / William Lane Craig debate – Sam Harris
18,000 Children starve to death daily
Free will not a defense
Why I am not a christian – Richard Carrier
Any other defense of evil and suffering
The tale of the twelve officers – Mark I. Vuletic
Number of bible translations
Morality in Mammals
Braintrust: What neuroscience tells us about morality – Patricia Churchland
Wild Justice: The Moral lives of animals – Mac Bekoff and Jessica Pierce
The Moral Landscape – Sam Harris
Biblical Moral Atrocities, Bible Contradictions, Failed Prophecies, scientific and historical errors all come from two sources. Most are verbatim.
Notes on Bible Problems – Richard Packham
The Bible and Biblical Problems – Donald Morgan
Some of the oddities and absurdities are reworked versions of the questions found in this blog post.
The evils of religion list is taken from here
Free Thought Pedia Forums – Ryvia
God’s Pagan Origins
A History of God – Karen Armstrong
The Problem of a Historical Jesus
Nailed – David Fitzgerald
Frank R. Zindler
efficacy of prayer
Tongues of men and Angels: The religious language of penetecostalism:
Dr William Samarin
Spiritual experiences the result of seizures
Out of body experiences
Old earth and universe mostly comes from, but also from Why Evolution is True
Why Evolution is true – Jerry Coyne
Greatest Show on Earth – Richard Dawkins
The Blind Watchmaker – Richard Dawkins
Cancer suppression in humans compared to chimps
Brain growth inhibiting gene mutated in humans